NT
Marbled Teal Marmaronetta angustirostris



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2016 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Vulnerable A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 13,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 24,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 10000-42000 medium estimated 2018
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.05 - - -

Population justification: There are estimates of the species four flyway populations as follows: west Mediterranean and west Africa 6,000-7,500 individuals, Eastern Mediterranean 20-100 individuals, south-west Asia 46,000-50,000 individuals, and South Asia c. 5,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2022). However, a number of these have no recent information and to incorporate uncertainty larger bounds are used here. For example, data for the south Asian wintering population dates from between 1987-1991: there are no recent records of large numbers from the area comparable with this number in the past decade. Updated values used are: west Mediterranean and west Africa 7,500-10,000 individuals, east Mediterranean 150-250 individuals, south-west Asia 7,000-50,000, and south Asia 350-1,000 individuals. 

For the west Mediterranean and west Africa population count totals in winter have reached 7,435 individuals in 2017 (Nagy and Langendoen 2020), implying that the true number is somewhat higher than this given the large area of unsurveyed habitat across north Africa. The population size range is expanded here to 7,500-10,000 individuals, but it is noted there is the potential for it to be considerably higher.

There is considerable uncertainty in the size and trends of the south west Asia population, which is largely concentrated in the Mesopotamian marshes of Iran and Iraq. In 2010 winter counts over southern Iraq observed c. 44,000 individuals, possibly due to birds concentrating at single sites as a result of changes in water levels elsewhere in its range (Salim 2010). Subsequent changes to water availability across the region means that deriving national population estimates is difficult, and the significance of recent, much lower counts is uncertain. Fewer than 100 individuals were found between 2015-2016 surveys of Hor Al-Dalmaj and a maximum of 110 individuals were observed at Sawa Lake (Abed et al. 2017). Across the larger area between 2014 and 2018, 4,373 individuals were recorded (based on the highest annual IWC count; Wetlands International 2022), but there has been a subsequent single site count of 5,000 individuals during August-September 2021 in Hur al-Azim, Iran (which is connected to the wetlands of southern Iraq) (K. Hafezi in litt. 2022). The partially nomadic behaviour of the species makes it difficult to assess to what extent this reflects redistribution of birds particularly due to natural fluctuations in its population numbers every year (F. Botella in litt. 2022). Accounting for those in countries further north, the minimum bound for the south west Asian population is likely to be between 7,000 and 50,000 individuals. 
The east Mediterranean population includes countries where rapid declines and extinctions have been documented: Georgia (where the last individuals were observed 'several decades ago': N. Paposhvili in litt. 2022) and Türkiye, where c. 120 breeding pairs at the start of the 1990s had dwindled to none by 2014 (Boyla et al. 2019, Ö.Ü. Özkoç in litt. 2022). However, larger numbers than recorded in recent census counts have been reported in Israel (e.g. Meyrav 2022), and the numbers breeding in Syria are unknown, such that there may have been a concentration of this population in the middle of this range. The range of 20-100 individuals for this region (Wetlands International 2022) may be too low, with around 200 recorded near simultaneously in Israel in June 2022 (eBird 2022), but these appear to represent the bulk of the remaining birds hence this population is thought to fall between 150-250 individuals.

There are few recent records of wintering birds in south Asia, though there is little coverage in Pakistan where most would be expected to occur (Green 1993). Hardly any have been reported via eBird in the past few years, which has very high numbers of active users in India (eBird 2022): the species appears to now be a rare visitor. Consequently it would seem unlikely that there are still 5,000 individuals regularly wintering in this this region, although it is suspected that many of these individuals have shifted their wintering areas or the extent to which they migrate rather than being entirely lost to the global population. Numbers wintering here and separate to those within the south-west Asian population are therefore placed in a band of 1,000-5,000 individuals.
Accordingly, the overall population is here estimated to fall between 15,000-61,250 individuals, rounded to 15,000-61,000 individuals, roughly converted to 10,000-40,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population is suspected to be undergoing a moderately rapid decline.

In the south west Asian population there is evidence to suspect there has been a moderately rapid to rapid population decline, although recent short-term increases have been recorded in Iran and Iraq (Nagy and Langendoen 2020, Wetlands International 2022). The Mesopotamian marshes of Iran and Iraq are thought to have held up to c. 80% of the global population in the recent past, with very large counts of c. 44,000 individuals in winter 2010 appear to have been due to the concentration of individuals from across a large area due to widespread drought coinciding with the restoration of the Mesopotamian marshes (Salim 2010). Inevitably, subsequent counts have been smaller as environmental circumstances have altered, with the largest recent single-site count of 5,000 in August-September 2021 in Hur al-Azim, Iran (K. Hafezi in litt. 2022). It is suspected that there has been both a significant dispersal across the region of the birds counted in 2010, but also that this population has declined, potentially at a rapid rate, due to the continued impacts of habitat destruction through wetland disturbance and drainage, climate change and hunting, with added affects of invasive species and pollutants (K. Ararat in litt. 2022, S. A. Abed in litt. 2022, K. Hafezi in litt. 2022, S. Nagy in litt. 2022, M. A. Salim in litt. 2022, M. Shobrak in litt. 2022). Elsewhere, the trend is reported as stable in Azerbaijan, declining in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and unknown in Kazakhstan (Wetlands International 2022). Only small numbers remain in Armenia (Keller et al. 2020) where it is declining (Wetlands International 2022). It has been extinct as a breeding bird in Georgia for several decades (N. Paposhvili in litt. 2022).

The western Mediterranean and west African population has undergone several increases and periods of stability (Nagy and Langendoen 2020), although some of the apparent fluctuation may be due to variation in monitoring efforts (N. Petkov in litt. 2022). The reported trend for north African countries is uncertain, but counts indicate that it may have increased taking into account redistribution of individuals between countries (Wetlands International 2022). In Morocco, there is a stable long-term trend with winter counts averaging around 2,000 individuals for 2001-2005, 2006-2010 and 2011-2015; El Agbani et al. 2017, Qninba et al. 2017, Ouassou et al. 2017, M. Amezian in litt. 2022)).  In other north African countries the trend is uncertain, with redistribution noted between Tunisia and Algeria (Wetlands International 2022), but there does not seem to be any evidence of significant abundance change. It is difficult to interpret the situation in Iberia, as reintroduction programmes distort population size estimates (see BirdGuides 2022, A. Green in litt. 2022, N. Petkov in litt. 2022): potentially 95% of the breeding population consists of individuals released from captivity (F. Botella in litt. 2022). It is suspected the species would be faring very poorly in the absence of releases given evidence of habitat deterioration across key sites in Spain (such as in Doñana and El Hondo; W. Duckworth in litt. 2022, A. Green in litt. 2022, N. Petkov in litt. 2022, T. K. Roy in litt. 2022) and possible hunting impacts (F. Botella in litt. 2022). The European population is now only a very small proportion of the global population.

The east Mediterranean population appears to be suffering ongoing and potentially rapid declines (Wetlands International 2022), including in Turkey a decline from c. 120 pairs in the early 1990s to extinction by 2014 (Boyla et al. 2019, Ö.Ü. Özkoç in litt. 2022). Only small numbers were reported as part of monitoring in Israel (Wetlands International 2022), however there are much larger recent counts from the country at additional sites (e.g. Meyrav 2022), suggesting that the true population there is larger.
Its status across South Asia remains uncertain (partly due to difficulty in interpreting clear population trends due to changing water levels and its nomadic behaviour), but it seems to now be much scarcer in India since the population was estimated at c. 5,000 in the early 1990s (Perennou et al. 1994, T. Mundkur in litt. 2021, T. K. Roy in litt. 2022). What is not clear is whether this reflects a shift in distribution, extent of migratory behaviour or a significant population decline. Similarly large counts of wintering birds in the 1990s in Pakistan (Green 1993) have not been reported recently and the area of suitable habitat is assessed to have shrunk (Chaudhry et al. 2019). While a redistribution may have occurred to some extent, it is sensible to assume a moderate to rapid decline here also.

Reflecting the uncertainty about the species' status across its range, but also that declines are affecting significant parts of the range, it is suspected overall the population is declining at a moderately rapid rate, placed in a band of 20-29% reduction over three generations (12 years), with similar rates projected in the future due to ongoing threats.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania V Extant
Algeria N Extant Yes Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Bulgaria U Extant
Burkina Faso U Extant
Cameroon N Extant Yes Yes
Cape Verde N Extinct Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extinct Yes
Czechia V Extant
Egypt N Extant Yes
France V Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia U Extant
Germany V Extant
Greece U Extant
Hungary V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan V Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Mauritania U Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes Yes
Niger U Extant Yes Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extinct Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant
Qatar V Extant
Romania V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara U Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Lake Boz-Koba
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Lake Ych-chala (Novogolovka-chala)
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Turkey Sultan Marsh
Turkey Kulu Lake
Turkey Ereğli Plain
Turkey Hotamış Marshes
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Tuzla lake
Turkey Akyatan Lake
Turkey Lake Van
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Evros delta
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Spain Medina and Puerto Real lagoons
Spain Lagunas de El Puerto de Santa María
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans
Spain El Hondo wetland
Spain El Moro marshes
Spain Mar Menor coastal lagoon
Spain Guadalentín saltmarshes
Spain Wetlands of western Almería
Spain Lebrija, Las Cabezas and Espera lagoons
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain Pego-Oliva marshes
Spain Los Tollos lake
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Azerbaijan Shorgel lakes/Shirvan reserve
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Jordan Northern Jordan Valley (North Ghor)
Algeria Marais de Mekhada
Algeria Barrage de Boughzoul
Algeria Marais de la Macta
Algeria Sebkha d'Oran
Morocco Marais Larache
Morocco Embouchure Oued Moulouya
Morocco Merja Zerga
Morocco Barrage Mohamed V
Morocco Canton Forestier de Sidi Bou Ghaba
Morocco Dwiyate
Morocco Parc Naturel d'Ifrane
Morocco Sidi Moussa - Oualidia
Morocco Barrage al Massira
Morocco Sebkha Zima
Morocco Merzouga/Tamezguidat
Morocco Barrage al Mansour Ad-Dhabi
Morocco Parc National de Souss-Massa and Aglou
Morocco Plage Blanche - Ras Takoumba
Morocco Msseyed
Mali Mare de Gossi
Tunisia Ichkeul
Tunisia Barrage Mornaguia
Tunisia Lagune de Soliman
Tunisia Barrage Lebna
Tunisia Lagunes de Korba
Tunisia Oued Sed
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia
Tunisia Metbassta
Tunisia Barrage El Houareb
Tunisia Sebkhet Sidi Mansour
Tunisia Sebkhet Nouaïel
Tunisia Douz Laâla
Tunisia Snam
Tunisia Ghidma
Turkey İğdır Plain
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Afghanistan Darqad
Israel Judean foothills
Israel Hula valley
Syria Golan Heights
Israel Lake Kinneret and Kinerot
Israel Carmel coast
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Iraq Baquba wetlands
Iraq Al Jadriyah and Umm Al Khanazeer island
Iraq Hindiya Barrage
Iraq Shuweicha Marsh
Iraq Razzaza Lake
Iraq Gharraf River
Iraq Sinnaf Seasonal Wetlands
Iraq Shatt Al Arab marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karkheh river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamidieh (Omidiyeh) plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Susangerd marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Cheghakor marsh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Haft Barm
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Ghara Gheshlaq No-Hunting Area
Jordan Jordan Valley
Syria Euphrates valley
Syria Bahrat Homs
Syria Tual al-'Abba
Iraq Haur Sarut
Iraq Haur Uwainah
Russia (European) Adzhi Lake
China (mainland) Karamay desert and lakes
Pakistan Mangla Lake
Pakistan Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands
Pakistan Drigh Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Hammal Katchery Lake
Pakistan Pugri Lake
Pakistan Nar-ri Ramsar Site
Pakistan Jubo Ramsar Site
Pakistan Manchar Lake
Pakistan Mehboob Shah Lake
Pakistan Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Rangla wetland complex
Pakistan Ucchali Wetland Complex
Pakistan Mehrano Reserve Lake and Rohri canal wetlands
Pakistan Keti Bundar North Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary
India Kaziranga National Park
India Banni Grassland and Chhari Dhand
India Basai wetlands
India Wular Lake and associated marshes
India Dudhwa National Park
India Asan Barrage
Pakistan Deh Akro Wildlife Sanctuary
Azerbaijan Lake Hajigabul
Armenia Metsamor
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Camargue
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Afghanistan Kole Hashmat Khan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Akh Gol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nowruzlu and Ghazanlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Amirkelayeh lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar
Iraq Central Marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iraq Huweija marshes
Iraq Anah and Rawa
Iraq Tharthar Lake and Al-Dhebaeji Fields
Iraq Samara Wetlands
Iraq Habbaniya Lake
Iraq Haur Al Hachcham and Haur Maraiba
Jordan Azraq
Iraq Haur Lafta
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Uzbekistan Karnabchul Steppe
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Uzbekistan Aksay Lake and surrounding desert
Uzbekistan Kagan Fish Farm
Uzbekistan Dengizkul Lake
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Uzbekistan Dzheiran Ecocentre
Turkmenistan Turkmenbashy Bay
Turkmenistan South Cheleken Bay
Turkmenistan Garadashly - Ekerem
Turkmenistan Ekerem - Esenguly
Turkmenistan Ayrakly – Garadzhaovlak
Turkmenistan Khankhovuz
Turkmenistan Garagumderya
Turkmenistan Erajy
Turkmenistan Soltandag Lake
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Turkmenistan Taylak Lake
Turkmenistan Ketteshor - Ramankol
Turkmenistan Kelif Lakes
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Uzbekistan Amudarya floodlands near Termez
Iraq Abu Dalaf and Shari lake
Iraq Haur Al Abjiya and Umm Al Baram
Iraq Haur Al Sa'adiyah
Iraq Haur Om am Nyaj
Iraq Haur Sanniya
Iraq Haur Al Haushiya
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Turkey Devegeçidi Dam
Turkey Karkamış
Turkey Seyhan Delta
Afghanistan Imam Sahib
Turkey Bendimahi Delta
Turkey Van Plains
Turkey Çelebibağı Reedbeds
Turkey Ziyaret Mountain and Ahlat Marshes
Italy Mazarese wetlands
Iraq Hawizeh
Iraq Dalmaj Marsh
Iraq Auda Marsh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gordeh Git and Mamiyand
Kazakhstan Lakes in the lower reaches of the Chu River
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Pétrola-Almansa-Yecla
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Spain Clot de Galvany
Spain Marjales de La Safor
Afghanistan Ab-i-Istada
Libya Sebkhet Qasr Ahmed (Taworgha)
Tunisia Barrage Moussa Chami
Tunisia Barrage Khairat
Tunisia Barrage Mlaâbi
Tunisia Barrage Oued Rmal
Tunisia Salines de Thyna
Tunisia Sebkhet Ariana
Iraq Ibn Najm
Iraq East Hammar
Iraq West Hammar
Iraq Fao
Iraq North Ibn Najm
Iraq Sawa Lake and Area
Iraq Suwaibaat (Sleibaat)
Tunisia Chott Djerid
Armenia Arax River
Turkey Ararat (1) Karakose
Turkey Ararat (2) (North-East)
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e-Moghan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Aras Dam Lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Morocco Marais Côte du Plateau Rmel
Tunisia Sebkhet Halk El Menzel et Oued Sed
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly
Turkmenistan Saryyazy
Syria Upper Orontes River and Homs Lake (Bahrat Homs)
India Dighal wetland
India Sardar Samand Lake
Mauritania Diawling National Park
Albania Karavasta Lagoon

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land major non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Inland Deltas major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Clostridium botulinum Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Pollution Domestic & urban waste water - Sewage Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Marmaronetta angustirostris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/01/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/01/2023.