EN
Mao Gymnomyza samoensis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- C2a(i) C2a(i); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered C2a(i)
2012 Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v);C2a(i)
2008 Endangered B1a+b(ii,iii,v)
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,200 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250-999 medium estimated 2005
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 10-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.8 - - -

Population justification: It was found to be common but patchily distributed in Savaii highland forests in 2005 (Pratt and Mittermeier 2016). The Rapid Biodiversity Assessment of Upland Savaii, Samoa, conducted in 2012 detected small numbers at two sites on the island (Atherton and Jefferies 2012, p. 14). The ICCRIF study of 2014 found it in only one of five sites it surveyed (R. Stirnemann in litt. 2016). This is consistent with a precautionary estimate of a population size of c.500 individuals (F.T. Tipanaa in litt. 2007), and it is placed here in the band 250-999 mature individuals. This equates to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.

Trend justification: The species is suspected to be undergoing a moderate decline owing to habitat degradation and predation by introduced mammals, which is on-going.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
American Samoa U Extinct Yes
Samoa N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Samoa O Le Pupu-Pu'e National Park
Samoa Uafato-Tiavea Forest
Samoa Eastern Upolu Craters
Samoa Apia Catchments
Samoa Central Savaii Rainforest

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude marginal resident
Altitude 760 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Gymnomyza samoensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/08/2020.