LC
Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 120,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 680000-790000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16.5 - - -

Population justification: In Europe (which covers >95% of the breeding range), the breeding population is estimated to be 342,000-393,000 breeding pairs, equating to 684,000-785,000 mature individuals or 1,026,000-1,177,500 individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Brooke (2004) also estimated the global population to be at least 1,000,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is unknown. The population trend is decreasing in North America (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola V Extant
Argentina N Extant
Australia V Extant
Austria V Extant
Barbados V Extant
Belgium V Extant
Belize V Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Brazil N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Cape Verde V Extant
Chile N Extant
Costa Rica V Extant
Côte d'Ivoire V Extant
Cuba V Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes
Dominican Republic V Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
Gambia U Extant
Germany V Extant
Ghana V Extant
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant
Guinea U Extant
Guinea-Bissau U Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant
Mauritania V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Netherlands N Extant
New Zealand V Extant
Nigeria V Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Panama V Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Senegal N Extant
Sierra Leone U Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant
Spain N Extant
St Helena (to UK) U Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines V Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant
Western Sahara N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Suduroy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Lítla Dímun
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Stóra Dímun
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Skúvoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Sandoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Hestur
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Koltur
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Nólsoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Svínoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Fugloy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vidoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Bordoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Kunoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Kalsoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Eysturoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Streymoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vágar
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Mykines and Mykineshólmur
Gibraltar (to UK) Strait of Gibraltar
Iceland Vestmannaeyjar
Ireland Lambay Island
Ireland Saltee Islands
Ireland The Skelligs: Great Skellig and Little Skellig
Ireland Puffin Island
Ireland Blasket Islands
Ireland High Island
Ireland Inishbofin and Inishshark (including Davillaun)
Ireland Illaunmaistir (Oilean Maistir)
Spain Mountain of Agua, gully of Los Cochinos and gully of Cuevas Negras
Spain La Palma laurel forest
Spain El Canal y Los Tiles laurel forest
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Archipel des Sept-Iles
France Archipel de Molène
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Ile d'Ouessant
France Iles d'Hyères
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Littoral Augeron
France Cap Gris-nez
United Kingdom Ailsa Craig
United Kingdom Fetlar
United Kingdom Foula
United Kingdom Glannau Aberdaron and Ynys Enlli
United Kingdom Hoy
United Kingdom Pembrokeshire Cliffs
United Kingdom Rathlin Island
United Kingdom Rum
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Sanda Island
United Kingdom Skokholm and Skomer
United Kingdom St Kilda
United Kingdom Treshnish Isles
United Kingdom Canna and Sanday
United Kingdom Calf of Man
Croatia Kornati National Park and Telascica Nature Park
Croatia Special Ornithological Reserves on Cres island
Croatia Special Ornithological Reserve on Krk island
France Estuaire de la Loire
Canada Placentia Bay
Canada Middle Lawn Island
Canada Green Island
Canada Brier Island and Offshore Waters
Spain Costa da Morte
United Kingdom Copeland Islands
Ireland Cruagh Island
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Cape Busto-Luanco
Argentina Atlantic, Southwest 45 - Marine
Portugal Corvo e Flores
Senegal Northern Senegal shelf break
Mauritania Canary current shelf-break South
Morocco Canary current shelf-break North

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Sus domesticus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Excess energy - Light pollution Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Puffinus puffinus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/11/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/11/2021.