Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 5,710,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 7,750,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size unknown poor estimated 2009
Population trend decreasing - suspected -
Generation length 7.4 years - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c. 65,000-66,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and <c.50 wintering individuals in China; <c.100 breeding pairs and <c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Korea and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Austria extant introduced yes
Belarus extant vagrant
Belgium extant introduced yes
China (mainland) extant native yes
Denmark extant introduced
France extant introduced
Germany extant introduced
Hong Kong (China) extant vagrant yes
India extant vagrant yes
Japan extant native yes
Mongolia extant vagrant yes
Myanmar extant vagrant yes
Nepal extant vagrant yes
Netherlands extant introduced yes
North Korea extant native yes
Russia extant native yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Slovenia extant introduced
South Korea extant native yes
Spain extant vagrant
Switzerland extant introduced
Taiwan, China extant native yes
Thailand extant vagrant yes
United Kingdom extant introduced yes
Vietnam extant vagrant yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
China (mainland) Baihe-Wanbao
China (mainland) Wuyuan Datangwu Reservoir
Japan Futatsuno reservoir
Japan Kanogawa reservoir
South Korea Bukchon
Japan Mounts Kurikoma and Yakiishi
Japan Mounts Asahidake and Gassan
Japan Mounts Nogo-hakusan and Ibuki
North Korea Lake Bujon
North Korea Mount Chilbo
North Korea Mount Kuwol
North Korea Mount Myohyang
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Middle reaches of the Bikin river
Russia (Asian) Middle reaches of the Iman river
Russia (Asian) Kievka and Chernaya river basins
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Aix galericulata. Downloaded from on 04/12/2023.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 04/12/2023.