LC
Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,710,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 7,750,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.4 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c. 65,000-66,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and <c.50 wintering individuals in China; <c.100 breeding pairs and <c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Korea and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable (Wetlands International 2006).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Austria I Extant Yes
Belarus V Extant
Belgium I Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Denmark I Extant
France I Extant
Germany I Extant
Hong Kong (China) V Extant Yes
India V Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Mongolia V Extant Yes
Myanmar V Extant Yes
Nepal V Extant Yes
Netherlands I Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Slovenia I Extant
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant
Switzerland I Extant
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Thailand V Extant Yes
United Kingdom I Extant Yes
Vietnam V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
China (mainland) Baihe-Wanbao
China (mainland) Wuyuan Datangwu Reservoir
Japan Futatsuno reservoir
Japan Kanogawa reservoir
Japan Mounts Asahidake and Gassan
Japan Mounts Kurikoma, Yakiishi
Japan Mounts Nogo-hakusan and Ibuki
South Korea Bukchon

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Aix galericulata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/05/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/05/2019.