VU
Malleefowl Leipoa ocellata



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2bce+3ce+4bce

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Vulnerable A2bce+3ce+4bce
2016 Vulnerable A2bce+3ce+4bce
2012 Vulnerable A2bce+3ce+4bce
2008 Vulnerable A2b,c,e; A3c,e; A4b,c,e
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - Australia
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 20000-30000, 25000 medium estimated 2020
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 20-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.13 - - -

Population justification: The current population of Malleefowl is estimated to be about 25,000 mature individuals based on densities in eight regions in New South Wales (2,800), 19 regions in South Australia (4,900), 14 regions in Victoria (6,000) and 13 regions in Western Australia (11,300; J. Benshemesh unpublished). The global population is therefore placed in the band of 20,000-30,000 mature individuals, with a best estimate of 25,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification:

Analyses of monitoring data from about 140 sites across the continent between 1989 to 2017 suggest a continuing national decline of about 2% p.a. (42% in three generations), but with trends varying regionally. Breeding activity declined by 4.8% annually in South Australia and by 2.1% annually in Western Australia, was stable in Victoria and increased by 4.8% annually in New South Wales although the New South Wales result was uncertain due to a patchy monitoring record and was not representative of that state (Benshemesh et al. 2020). Therefore, overall the population is thought to have declined by 30–50% in three generations (28 years) and a similar rate of decline is predicted in the next three generations (Benshemesh et al. 2021).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Australia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Australia Central NSW Mallee
Australia Billiatt
Australia Southern NSW Mallee
Australia Fitzgerald River
Australia Little Desert
Australia Riverland Mallee
Australia Wyperfeld, Big Desert and Ngarkat
Australia Lake Magenta
Australia Dunn Rock and Lake King
Australia Dragon Rocks
Australia Holleton
Australia Mount Gibson and Charles Darwin
Australia Karara and Lochada
Australia Karroun Hill
Australia Gawler Ranges
Australia Goonoo
Australia Gum Lagoon
Australia Southern Yorke Peninsula
Australia Murray-Sunset, Hattah and Annuello
Australia Peebinga
Australia Wandown

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 530 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Capra hircus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Dama dama Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Oryctolagus cuniculus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Ovis aries Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Vulpes vulpes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Leipoa ocellata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/08/2022.