LC
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Anas platyrhynchos and A. fulvigula (incorporating diazi) (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously treated as A. platyrhynchos (incorporating diazi) and A. fulvigula following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 127,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 135,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.6 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.19,000,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 2,850,000-4,610,000 pairs, which equates to 5,700,000-9,220,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations may be stable, fluctuating, decreasing, and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (99.3% increase over 40 years, equating to a 18.8% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: [Butcher and Niven 2007]) and in 2015 the species's abundance was 51% above the long-term average for the period 1955-2014 (Zimpfer et al. 2015). In Europe the population size is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia I Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Brunei V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Cook Islands V Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cuba N Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti V Extant
Dominican Republic V Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Fiji V Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jamaica V Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kiribati V Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant
Mali V Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands U Extant
Martinique (to France) V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of U Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) I Possibly Extinct Yes
New Zealand I Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant
Niger V Extant
Nigeria V Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Panama V Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines V Extant
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Thailand V Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vanuatu V Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Bulgaria Straldzha Complex
Canada Boundary Bay - Roberts Bank - Sturgeon Bank (Fraser River Estuary)
Canada Cumberland Marshes
Canada Delta Marsh
Canada Eagle, Namaka and Stobart Lakes
Canada Long Point Peninsula and Marshes
Canada Oak Hammock Marsh WMA
Canada Whitewater Lake
China (mainland) Aksu River basin
China (mainland) Bachu Oasis
China (mainland) Barkol Lake and grassland
China (mainland) Bosten Lake
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
China (mainland) Ebi Nur and Kuytun River
China (mainland) Hongfeng Hu and Baihua Hu
China (mainland) Jianhu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Mengjin Huanghe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Taipo Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tarim Euphrates Poplar Forest Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tumen River at Jingxin-Fangchuan
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve
France Camargue
Germany Dümmer
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Greece Lake Kerkini
Hungary Kis-Sárrét
Hungary Lake Balaton
Hungary Sárvíz Valley
India Kanjli Lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kaftar lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Japan Lake Hyoko
Japan Lakes Oyama Kamiike and Shimoike
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 10
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Karatal River
Kazakhstan Shaglyteniz Lake and marshes
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Kyrgyzstan Water reservation of Northern Chu Valley
Mexico Ciénega de Tláhuac
Mexico Corredor de Barrancas de la Sierra Madre Occidental
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Otgontenger Mountain
Mongolia Selengiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes
Pakistan Head Qadirabad Game Reserve
Pakistan Lal Sohanra National Park
Pakistan Mangla Lake
Pakistan Marala Game Reserve
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Lunca Siretului Mijlociu
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Lake system near Lotoshnoye village
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Kamsko-Ikski area
Russia (European) Krasnodarskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Surski reservoir
Russia (European) Valley of Terek River (Mozdokski District)
Russia (European) Varnavinsko-Kryukovskaya irrigation system
South Korea Cheonsu Bay
South Korea Dongjin estuary
South Korea Donglim reservoir
South Korea Gangjin Bay
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
South Korea Geumho-ho lake
South Korea Gocheonam-ho lake
South Korea Han-gang estuary
South Korea Han-gang river
South Korea Junam reservoir
South Korea Mangyeong estuary
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island
South Korea Upo swamp
South Korea Yeongam-ho lake
Spain Ampurdán marshes
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Villafáfila
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly
Turkmenistan Gurtli
Turkmenistan Jarsay - Khangui
Turkmenistan Ketteshor - Ramankol
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Turkmenistan Turkmenbashy Bay
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
USA Cache-Lower White Rivers
USA Montezuma Wetlands Complex
Uzbekistan Achinskoe Lake
Uzbekistan Amudarya floodlands near Termez
Uzbekistan Dalverzin State Forestry and Hunting Management Area
Uzbekistan Dengizkul Lake
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes
Uzbekistan Karnabchul Steppe
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Talimardzhan Reservoir
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Uzbekistan Tuyabuguz Reservoir
Uzbekistan Yuzhno-Surkhan (South-Surkhan) Reservoir

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Anas platyrhynchos. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/10/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/10/2019.