CR
Malherbe's Parakeet Cyanoramphus malherbi



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Boon, W. M.; Kearvell, J. C.; Daugherty, C. H.; Chambers, G. K. 2000. Molecular systematics of New Zealand Cyanoramphus Parakeets: conservation of Orange-fronted and Forbes' Parakeets. Bird Conservation International 10: 211-239.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A2bce A2bce; D A2bce; B1ab(i,ii,iv,v); D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Critically Endangered A2bce
2016 Critically Endangered A2bce
2015 Critically Endangered A2bce
2013 Critically Endangered A2bce
2012 Critically Endangered A2bce
2010 Critically Endangered A2b,c,e
2009 Critically Endangered A2c,e; A4c,e; C2a(i)
2008 Critically Endangered
2006 Critically Endangered
2005 Critically Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass 46.70000076293945 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 118,000 medium
Number of locations 7 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50-249 medium estimated 2013
Population trend Stable medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 7 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.6 - - -

Population justification: Although the population numbered several hundreds prior to 2000, a prolific increase in the population of rats and stoats within its restricted South Island range induced a rapid population decline and the total population has remained well below its previous levels. Successful translocations on four islands have boosted the population of this species, but decreases may have continued on the mainland. Overall, the global population was estimated at 290-690 individuals in early 2013, with the mainland populations estimated to total 130-270 individuals and the island populations totaling 160-420 individuals (J. C. Kearvell in litt. 2013). Obtaining accurate population estimates is extremely challenging for the species, but recent counts indicate that the mainland population may have declined to around 100 birds, and the offshore island populations to around 250 birds in total (J.C. Kearvell in litt. 2016). The population has a skewed sex ratio of males to females, probably due to higher predation on incubating females (Kearvell and Farley 2016).

Trend justification: The population fell from 500-700 birds prior to 2000, to 100-200 by 2004. Increased conservation efforts (especially predator control) in its small South Island range and a successful translocation of birds to four islands suggest its rapid decline has ceased and some recovery has taken place. However, 2013 estimates suggest further declines on the mainland, and during a three generation (14 year) period the species has still experienced a reduction in the number of mature individuals. This reduction is precautionarily estimated to have been extremely rapid, as latest population estimates include an unknown but potentially significant proportion of non-mature individuals. Overall, the population appears to stabilize at low levels, and it is likely that the mainland populations remains at an extremely low level of around 100 birds in total (J. Kearvell in litt. 2016).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
New Zealand N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
New Zealand Bay of Plenty Islands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Temperate major resident
Altitude 0 - 1300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Bos taurus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Cervus elaphus_old Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Mustela erminea Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Hybridisation, Scewed sex ratios, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Scewed sex ratios, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Sturnus vulgaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Trichosurus vulpecula Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Cyanoramphus auriceps Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Beak and Feather Disease Virus (BFDV) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Cyanoramphus malherbi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/11/2019.