CR
Maleo Macrocephalon maleo



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A2cd+4cd A2cd+4cd A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Critically Endangered A2cd+4cd
2016 Endangered A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2013 Endangered A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2012 Endangered A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2008 Endangered A2b,c,d,e; A3b,c,d,e; A4b,c,d,e
2007 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2002 Endangered
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 373,000 medium
Number of locations 48 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 8000-14000 medium estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing good inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 80-90 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.8 - - -

Population justification: The total population is estimated to number 4,000-7,000 breeding pairs (Butchart & Baker 2000), equivalent to 8,000-14,000 mature individuals or 12,000-21,000 individuals in total. Despite numerous research projects at multiple nesting grounds since, a coordinated resurvey has only recently been undertaken which initial findings appear to confirm the continuation of a rapid decline (Alliance for Tompotika Conservation 2018).Very few nesting sites are considered secure: intact, connected to forest habitat and safe from egg collection (Dekker 1990). Where there is long-term conservation commitment numbers of individuals can increase rapidly: at Taima 
The key areas holding the largest proportions of the population are the 'Bogani Landscape' around Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park plus Tanjung Dako and Tanjung Matop areas along the coast in North Sulawesi (Argeloo 1994, Butchart & Baker 2000, Gorog et al. 2005), while in Central Sulawesi key sites are Lore Lindu National Park (Butchart & Baker 2000), Morowali Nature Reserve and nearby Sungai Bosu, and three sites on the eastern peninsular (Bakiriang, Libuun and Pintu Kubur) in Central Sulawesi (Butchart & Baker 2000). 

Most information pertains to sites in the 'Bogani Landscape' in North Sulawesi. Here, 50% of known nesting grounds (18/36) were assessed as having been abandoned by 2003, and five of the 27 sites also assessed in 1990-1991 had been active at that time (Gorog et al. 2005). Six further nesting grounds were predicted to have a high likelihood of abandonment in the near future (Gorog et al. 2005). One of these sites, Tanjung Binereang, has been the subject of a significant conservation project involving the creation of a private locally-owned reserve that has been successful at preventing abandonment (Clements 2009). Sites within protected areas were more likely to persist and in the absence of direct intervention through guarding the nesting grounds abandonment was likely: 17/26 nesting grounds in non-protected areas assessed in 2003 had already been abandoned and of the remainder 6 were 'Severely Threatened' and two (adjacent to each other) were threatened (Gorog et al. 2005).

Numbers of individuals is difficult to assess, as pairs arrive intermittently at the breeding ground and females lay their estimated annual clutch of 8-12 eggs  (Dekker 1990) over a variable time period. At Saluki, one of the main nesting grounds in Lore Lindu National Park, 162 mature individuals were estimated from maximum monthly number of eggs laid during a 6-month study in 2015, contrasted with an estimate of 325-650 for the site in 2001 (Yanto Samana 2015). However Butchart & Baker (2000) roughly estimated 10-50 pairs at the site in 2000, 20-100 mature individuals. Both works indicate a strong decrease has occurred, evidenced by the dramatic reduction in numbers of eggs harvested from over 30 daily in the early 1980s to only 1-2 a day by 1999 (Butchart & Baker 2000). Action to conserve this population has clearly prevented the abandonment of the site (Yanto Samana 2015).

Trend justification: Maximum daily numbers of individuals visiting nesting grounds have declined by more than 80% over the past three generations (Summers et al., in prep). These numbers are inferred to directly relate to the total size of the population.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Indonesia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Indonesia Tangkoko Dua Sudara
Indonesia Bogani Nani Wartabone
Indonesia Lore Lindu
Indonesia Morowali
Indonesia Rawa Aopa Watumohai
Indonesia Buton Utara
Indonesia Feruhumpenai - Matano
Indonesia Tanjung Binerean
Indonesia Panua
Indonesia Gunung Ambang
Indonesia Molonggota
Indonesia Tanjung Panjang
Indonesia Gunung Dako
Indonesia Siraro
Indonesia Pegunungan Tokalekaju
Indonesia Tambu
Indonesia Pambuang
Indonesia Lariang
Indonesia Bakiriang
Indonesia Pasoso
Indonesia Mamuju
Indonesia Danau Towuti
Indonesia Tanjung Colo
Indonesia Milangodaa
Indonesia Tanjung Batikolo
Indonesia Balantak
Indonesia Tanjung Peropa

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1065 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Other household goods - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Macrocephalon maleo. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/08/2022.