Malay Plover Charadrius peronii


Justification of Red List Category
This species is classified as Near Threatened because it is likely to have a small to moderately small population which, owing to the development pressures on the coastal areas it inhabits, is likely to be undergoing a decline, although there is insufficient information available on its sub-population structure.

Population justification
The population was estimated to number fewer than 10,000 individuals by Perennou et al. (1994), but BirdLife International (2001) noted that this may be an underestimate given the number of islands it inhabits. Therefore the population size is probably placed in the band 10,000-25,000 individuals, roughly equating to 6,700-17,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
There are no data on population trends; however, habitat loss, habitat degradation and disturbance, particularly in its breeding grounds, are likely to be causing a decline.

Distribution and population

Charadrius peronii is a breeding resident in Vietnam (scarce in Cochinchina), Cambodia (rare), Southern Thailand (local and uncommon), Peninsular Malaysia (scarce to locally common), East Malaysia, Singapore (rare), Brunei (apparently declining), Philippines (widespread but uncommon) and Indonesia (local around coasts and offshore islands of Sumatra, uncommon on and around Borneo and Bali, very rare on mainland Java, and uncommon and sparsely distributed in the Lesser Sundas and the Sulawesi sub-region). The global population is thought to number 10,000-25,000 individuals.


It frequents quiet sandy bays, coral sand beaches, open dunes and artificial sand-fills, where it lives in pairs, generally not mixing with other waders. Juveniles feed in wetlands and mudflats (Yasué and Dearden 2008). The species primarily breeds in beach habitat, although research has shown saltflats are also suitable. The latter are likely to become more important as further development for tourism causes degradation of beaches in the species's range, particularly in Thailand (Yasué et al. 2007).


The species is absent from some apparently suitable areas, perhaps for ecological reasons not yet understood. There is growing concern that it is under pressure from the development and disturbance of coastal habitat, particularly that causing coastal erosion on nesting beaches (Yasué et al. 2007), and concern that as suitable habitat becomes more and more restricted chick survival may decline (M. Yasué in litt. 2016).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
None are known.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys on the breeding and wintering grounds to estimate the size of the population and its specific habitat preferences. Oppose development schemes which destroy sites where the species is found. Promote restoration of saltflat habitats on abandoned aquaculture sites, which have less commercial value than beaches (Yasué et al. 2007).


Text account compilers
Taylor, J., Butchart, S., Benstead, P., Westrip, J., Mahood, S., Khwaja, N.

Yasué, M.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Charadrius peronii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2019.