Justification of Red List Category
This species probably has a moderately small population, and is likely to have declined as a result of continuing habitat loss. It is therefore listed as Near Threatened, and should be carefully monitored for any future increases in the rate of decline.
The population size of this species has not been quantified; it is considered rare to common throughout its range.
Data on trends are lacking, but a slow to moderate decline is suspected to be occurring, in line with habitat loss throughout the species's range.
Anthracoceros coronatus is restricted to central and southern India (common in a few areas, but declining and confined to land under 300 m) and Sri Lanka (local and moderately plentiful, but now restricted to more secluded forest of the dry lowlands).
This species occurs in open moist broadleaved deciduous and evergreen forests, especially in hilly country and riverine areas (Mudappa and Raman 2009). It makes seasonal movements in response to fruiting events, and sometimes visits isolated fruiting trees in cultivated areas.
Forest on Sri Lanka has suffered rapid degradation and fragmentation in the past decades through excessive gathering of fuelwood, clearance for permanent agriculture, shifting cultivation, fire, urbanisation and logging. Closed-canopy forest is estimated to have declined from 29,000 km2 (44% of the island's area) in 1956 to 12,260 km2 in 1983, and similar losses are occurring in mainland India. It is reportedly collected for medicinal purposes in Orissa (del Hoyo et al. 2001). The proposed Athirapilly Dam poses a threat to the species in India's Western Ghats (Mudappa and Raman 2009).
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Important populations exist in Mollem, Madei and Dandeli wildlife sanctuaries (Mudappa and Raman 2009).
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Khwaja, N., Taylor, J.
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Anthracoceros coronatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/01/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/01/2022.