LC
Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Least Concern
2018 Near Threatened A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2016 Near Threatened A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2012 Near Threatened A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2010 Near Threatened A2b,c,d,e; A3b,c,d,e; A4b,c,d,e
2008 Near Threatened A2b,e; A3b,e; A4b,e
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,340,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 6,430,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2200000-3200000 good estimated 2020
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13.2 - - -

Population justification: The world population is estimated at between 1.1 and 1.6 million pairs, which equates to 2.2-3.2 million mature individuals. About 900,000 pairs breed along the Argentinian coast, at least 100,000 pairs breed in the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) and a minimum of 144,000 pairs and a maximum guess of 500,000 pairs breed in Chile (Boersma et al. 2013, 2015).

Trend justification: Population trends vary among colonies and are contrasting among regions. Along the Argentinian coast, trends in the censused colonies are inconsistent. In southern Atlantic Patagonia, at the southern part of the distribution on Bahía Franklin, Staten Island, numbers increased from 500 pairs in 1998 to 1,600 pairs in 2010, reaching 2,300 pairs during the last survey in 2015, while the population on Martillo Island increased by 15% over 20 years (Raya Rey et al. 2014, A. Raya Rey unpubl. data). Numbers from Observatorio Island (around 105,000 pairs) have not been updated since the last survey performed in 1995 (Schiavini et al. 2005). In Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, an overall increase of 12% has been reported for all the 17 colonies in the last 20/25 years (E. Frere unpublished data 2020).

In northern Patagonia (Chubut and Rio Negro provinces, Argentina), which is the stronghold of the known global population, trends are mixed. The largest colonies are declining in the central and southern part of northern Patagonia. For example, Punta Tombo has declined by 40% since 1987 (Rebstock et al. 2016, P. D. Boersma unpublished data) and Isla Leones, Isla Tova and Isla Tovita declines ranged from 50 to 76% (Boersma et al. 2013, 2015, Pozzi et al. 2015, Garcia-Borboroglu et al. 2019). The breeding population has expanded north since the 1960s, with new colonies established and growing rapidly (Schiavini et al. 2005, Boersma et al. 2013, Pozzi et al. 2015). The colony in Estancia San Lorenzo on the Peninsula Valdés increased from a few pairs  in the early 1970s to 200,000 pairs over 45 years and new colonies were established since 2000 north of 43ºS (Schiavini et al. 2005, Pozzi et al. 2015, Garcia-Borboroglu et al. 2019). In this 1,000 km sector of northern Patagonia, the overall trend for 28 colonies, representing 42% of the extant colonies, show a decline of approximately 1%, indicating that in this sector the population is likely stable (Garcia-Borboroglu et al. 2019).

The population trend in Chile is unknown, but colonies in the north of the range and in the Juan Fernández Islands seem to have been abandoned (Boersma et al. 2013, 2015). The large population on Magdalena Island declined by 85.4% over the last 15 years, while the colony in Seno Otway decreased by 89% in the last 11 years (Godoy et al. 2019).

In the Falkland Islands (Malvinas), the historical population estimate was 100,000 pairs at 41 breeding sites (Croxall et al. 1984). Later, Woods and Woods (1997) reported 76,000-142,000 pairs at about 100 breeding sites; however, Croxall et al. (1984) was reported as a minimum, and it is not thought that these changed numbers represent a true increase in the population size. On the other hand, it was also reported that the colonies on the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) have declined by almost 50% since the 1980s, but data are insufficient to substantiate this (R. Woods in litt. 1999, Pütz et al. 2001). Since 1999, burrow occupancy at two sites in the islands fluctuated annually with no clear trend (Stanworth 2015). Data from current annual monitoring of a breeding site since 1999 suggests a fluctuating population (Crofts and Stanworth 2019), with no evidence to suggest long-term declines of the population (A. Stanworth pers. comm.). The global population is overall assessed as stable, with at most a suspected slow decline of <10% over three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antarctica V Extant
Argentina N Extant Yes
Australia V Extant
Brazil N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant Yes
New Zealand V Extant
Peru N Extant Yes
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands V Extant
Uruguay N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Argentina Boca de la Ría Santa Cruz
Argentina Isla Pingüino
Chile Laguna San Rafael National Park
Chile Islote Huentellao
Chile Isla Magdalena
Chile Islotes Puñihuil
Chile Isla Noir
Argentina Playa Punta Mogotes y Puerto de Mar del Plata
Argentina Villa marítima El Cóndor
Argentina Complejo Islote Lobos - Punta Pozos
Argentina San Antonio Oeste
Argentina Sistema Península de Valdés
Argentina Punta Tombo
Argentina Punta Gutierrez - Bahía Camarones
Argentina Bahía Camarones y Norte del Golfo San Jorge
Argentina Cabo Vírgenes - Punta Dungeness
Argentina Ría Deseado e Isla Chaffers
Argentina Monte León
Argentina Desembocadura del Río Gallegos
Argentina Estuario del Río Coyle
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Lively Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Beaver Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Bleaker Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Elephant Cays Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Jason Islands Group
Argentina Península y Bahía de San Julián
Argentina Península Mitre
Argentina Canal Beagle. Ushuaia a Islas Becasses
Argentina Isla de los Estados, Islas de Año Nuevo e islotes adyacentes
Argentina Islas Malvinas
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Keppel Island
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Kidney Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Lively Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) New Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Pebble Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Saunders Island
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Sea Lion Islands Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Speedwell Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) West Point Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Bull Point, East Falkland
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Hope Harbour, West Falkland
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Seal Bay, East Falkland
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Volunteer Point, East Falkland
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Bertha's Beach, East Falkland
Chile Isla Tucker
Chile Isla Pájaro Niño de Algarrobo
Chile Isla Doña Sebastiana Punta Chocoi y Roqueríos adyacentes
Chile Monumento Natural Pingüineras de Puñihuil
Chile Monumento Natural Isla Contramaestre
Chile Pingüinera del Seno Otway
Chile Isla Magdalena National Park
Chile Parque Nacional Laguna San Rafael
Chile Patranca Island
Chile Pucatrihue
Chile Guabún
Chile Bahía Chilota, Porvenir
Chile Isla Guafo
Argentina Confluencia, desembocadura y adyacencias de los ríos Chico y Santa Cruz
Argentina Monte León - Marina
Argentina Cabo Vírgenes - Marina
Argentina Frente Península Valdés
Argentina Punta Tombo
Argentina Golfo San Jorge
Argentina Costa Atlántica de Tierra del Fuego
Argentina Punta Clara - Punta Tombo
Argentina Estancia San Lorenzo
Argentina Caleta Valdés
Argentina Bahía San Gregorio e islas
Argentina Bahías Arredondo, Melo e islas
Argentina Caleta Malaspina
Argentina Isla Chaffers
Argentina Isla Pingüino y otras
Argentina Banco Cormorán
Argentina Islas Observatorio y Goffré
Argentina Península Valdés, Punta León y Punta Loma
Chile Isla Mocha
Chile Santuario de la Naturaleza Península de Hualpén
Chile Parque Nacional Cabo de Hornos
Argentina Complejo Islote Lobos - Punta Pozos
Argentina Punta Tombo
Argentina Estuario del Río Santa Cruz
Argentina Ría Deseado e Isla Chaffers
Argentina Isla Pingüino
Argentina San Julián
Argentina Monte León
Argentina Cabo Vírgenes - Punta Dungeness
Argentina Isla de los Estados - Banco Burdwood
Argentina Canal Beagle. Ushuaia a Islas Becasses
Argentina Bahía Camarones y Norte del Golfo San Jorge

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Temperate major breeding
Grassland Subantarctic major breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches major breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Shrubland Temperate major breeding
Altitude 0 - 85 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Industrial aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Diseases of unknown cause Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Vulpes vulpes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Nutrient loads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Domestic & urban waste water - Sewage Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Spheniscus magellanicus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2022.