Madagascar Wood-rail Mentocrex kioloides


Taxonomic note
Mentocrex kioloides (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Canirallus.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 209,000 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals poor not applicable 0
Population trend decreasing suspected 2016-2031
Decline % (10 years/3 generations future) 10-19 - - -
Decline % (10 years/3 generations past and future) 10-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (years) 5.06 - - -

Population justification: The population size was previously suspected to number 1,000-2,000 individuals, however it is now considered unlikely to be that small given the range and spread of recent records. With little quantitative data available the current population size is considered unknown. 

The subspecies M. k. kioloides was regarded as common around 1930, but has since faced continued habitat destruction (Taylor 2021). M. k. berliozi is restricted to small areas of threatened forest, but is thought to be fairly common within these (Taylor 2021).

Trend justification: Both subspecies are experiencing ongoing habitat destruction and the overall population is suspected to be in decline as a result (de Hoyo et al. 1996). Over three generations (15.18 years), an estimated 16% of tree cover has been lost (Global Forest Watch 2021, using Hansen et al. [2013] data and methods disclosed therein), and in view of ongoing threats these declines are likely to continue. As this species is highly forest dependent, it is assumed that population declines may be roughly equivalent to this rate of habitat loss.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Madagascar extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Madagascar Montagne d'Ambre National Park and Special Reserve
Madagascar South Anjanaharibe Special Reserve and extension
Madagascar Marojejy National Park
Madagascar Masoala National Park
Madagascar Marotandrano Special Reserve
Madagascar Anjanaharibe Classified Forest
Madagascar Upper Rantabe Classified Forest
Madagascar Mananara-North Biosphere Reserve
Madagascar Bezavona Classified Forest
Madagascar Zahamena National Park and Strict Reserve
Madagascar Betampona Strict Nature Reserve
Madagascar Mangerivola Special Reserve
Madagascar Sihanaka Forest
Madagascar Mantadia National Park and Analamazaotra Special Reserve
Madagascar Ankeniheny Classified Forest
Madagascar Onive Classified Forest
Madagascar Anjozorobe Forest
Madagascar Andohahela National Park - Section I
Madagascar Tsitongambarika NPA
Madagascar Ranomafana National Park and extension
Madagascar Andringitra National Park
Madagascar Vondrozo Classified Forest NPA
Madagascar Midongy South National Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Mentocrex kioloides. Downloaded from on 26/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/09/2023.