Madagascar Teal Anas bernieri


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- C2a(ii) C2a(i,ii); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Endangered C2a(ii)
2016 Endangered C2a(ii)
2013 Endangered C2a(ii)
2012 Endangered C2a(ii)
2008 Endangered C2a(ii)
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency low
Land-mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 310,000 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals 630-1900 medium estimated 2022
Population trend decreasing poor inferred 2012-2024
Decline % (10 years/3 generations future) 10-25 - - -
Decline % (10 years/3 generations past and future) 10-25 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (years) 3.8 - - -

Population justification: The total population is estimated at between 630-1,900 mature individuals, based on an assessment of survey data at key sites (R. Rabarisoa in litt. 2022) and the area of suitable mangrove habitat within the range (Bunting et al. 2018). This value is similar to the population size in 2002, thought to be 1,500-2,500 individuals (H.G. Young in litt. 2002) roughly equivalent to 1,000-1,700 mature individuals. Survey information from ASITY Madagascar (R. Rabarisoa in litt. 2022) supplied maximum counts for the sites targeted for survey for the species, and additional counts for other important sites. For the Mahavavy Kinkony Wetland Complex (surveyed between 2004 and 2019) the maximum count was 353 (in 2011), while for Mangoky Ihotry Wetland Complex (2005 to 2019) the maximum was 110 in 2005, with a population of between 400-450 individuals present regularly between these two major sites (R. Rabarisoa in litt. 2022). Additional sites surveyed were Mahajamba (mangroves and estuaries) with a maximum count of 319 individuals in 2018; Besalampy (mangroves), 116 individuals in 2018; Riv Loza (mangroves), 32 individuals in 2020 and Baie de Bombetoka (mangrove), 30 individuals in 2021. The summed total of the maximum counts is 897-960. These sites are considered likely to support most of the population and include more than 50% of the extent of mangrove in patches that are larger than just channel-side vegetation (based on the mapped extent of mangroves from Global Mangrove Watch v2.0, Bunting et al. [2018]). As such, a reasonable assumption would be to assume the total population size is no greater than double this value. The maximum population size would be that based on the assumption that these surveys recorded only mature individuals, hence 1,794-1,920 mature individuals as a range for the maximum population size, rounded to 1,800-1,900 mature individuals. A more precautionary assumption would be to use a standard proportion of two-thirds of the sampled population were mature individuals, giving an upper range of 1,200-1,270 mature individuals. Considering the minimum bound, there are individuals at several more mangrove areas, but a minimum number for these is uncertain. Hence to encompass all likely values, the minimum bound is set as the maximum counted number, rounded to 950 individuals hence equivalent to 630 mature individuals.

Trend justification: This species' population is inferred to be decreasing overall in line with extensive habitat loss and disturbance throughout its breeding range, exacerbated by hunting at both breeding and moulting sites. At monitored sites, numbers have not shown a rapid reduction over the past 25 years, although this may in part be due to the immigration of individuals from disturbed areas (Razafindrajao et al. 2017). Between 1950-1994, 60% of wetlands were lost across Madagascar (Kull 2012), equating to a rate of loss of 16% over three generations. Razafindrajao et al. (2017) states that the non-protected habitat is being cleared rapidly, and this species may be impacted by hunting. A greater proportion of the mangrove habitat is now protected hence it may be the case that current and future overall rates of wetland habitat loss within the range are lower. In addition, the generation length of the species has been revised following the methods of Bird et al. (2020) resulting in a reduction in the period over which a reduction is calculated. The population is now suspected to be declining at a moderate rate of 10-25% over three generations based on the recorded rate of past conversion (Kull 2012, Razafindrajao et al. 2017).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Madagascar extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Madagascar Coastal area East of Antsiranana
Madagascar Ambavanankarana wetland
Madagascar Port-Bergé Wetlands NPA and extension
Madagascar Bombetoka Bay - Marovoay NPA
Madagascar Mahavavy - Kinkony wetlands NPA
Madagascar Baly Bay National Park
Madagascar Tambohorano Wetland NPA
Madagascar Bemamba Wetland Complex
Madagascar Manambolomaty wetland complex and Tsimembo Classified Forest
Madagascar Wetlands of the Tsiribihina delta and upper Tsiribihina river
Madagascar Kirindy Mite National Park and extension

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major resident
Marine Neritic Estuaries major resident
Savanna Moist suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Subsistence/artisinal aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Anas bernieri. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/madagascar-teal-anas-bernieri on 26/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 26/09/2023.