EN
Madagascar Serpent-eagle Eutriorchis astur



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A4bc; C1+2a(i) A4bc; B1ab(ii,iii,v); C1+2a(i); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered A4bc; C1+2a(i)
2012 Endangered C2a(i)
2008 Endangered C2a(i)
2004 Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 121,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250-999 poor estimated 2011
Population trend Decreasing medium inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 70-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.9 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated at 66-1,660 individuals (0.04-1 individuals/km2 x 1,660 km2), but is perhaps best placed in the band 250-999 mature individuals. This equates to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals. Hawkins (in litt. 2003) suggests the total population is certainly not less than 250 individuals, and L.-A. Rene de Roland in litt. (2012) suggests 250-650 individuals. Assuming a body mass of 800-1,200 g, data in Newton (1979) suggests a breeding density of c. 0.04-1 birds/km2, however the body mass has since been estimated to average 700 g for males and 800 g for females (L.-A. Rene de Roland in litt. 2012).

Trend justification: Hawkins in litt (2003) suggests that the population decrease cannot be more than 30% over the past ten years, but modelling the possible effects of climate change have shown that this species's ecological may decline by as much as 94% due to climate change over the 50 year period from 2000 to 2050 (Andriamasimanana and Cameron 2013). Assuming a linear decrease, this would equate to an ongoing c.72% decline in ecological niche over 3 generations, placed here in the range of 70-79% (ongoing c.48% over 2 generations; c.35% in next generation).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Madagascar N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Madagascar Ambatovaky Special Reserve
Madagascar Mantadia National Park and Analamazaotra Special Reserve
Madagascar Marojejy National Park
Madagascar Marotandrano Special Reserve
Madagascar Masoala National Park
Madagascar Sihanaka Forest
Madagascar South Anjanaharibe Special Reserve and extension
Madagascar Tsaratanana Strict Nature Reserve and extension
Madagascar Upper Rantabe Classified Forest
Madagascar Zahamena National Park and Strict Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Eutriorchis astur. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/11/2019.