EN
Madagascar Sacred Ibis Threskiornis bernieri



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- C1 A2cde+3cde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered C1
2013 Endangered C1
2012 Endangered C1
2008 Endangered C1
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 564,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1500-1850 medium estimated 2006
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8 - - -

Population justification: Population data for Madagascar and the Seychelles, from a number of sources, suggests a population range of 2,300-2,750 individuals, roughly equivalent to 1,500-1,850 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species's population is estimated to have declined by >20% over the last 16 years (two generations) based on comparison of current rarity (e.g. low numbers recorded on African Water bird Census) and historical accounts (e.g. Rand 1936), with most of this decline likely to have occurred in the last few decades (R. Safford in litt. 2006). The species's decline in Madagascar is shown by surveys in 2005 and 2006, in which 24 of the 26 sites revisited after surveys in the previous ten years showed drastic reductions (Andrianarimisa and Razafimanjato, 2011). However, the species's population increased at Bay de Baly between 2000 and 2004, and appeared stable at Mahavavy Delta between 2002 and 2005 (R. Rabarisoa in litt. 2007).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level major resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major resident
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major resident
Marine Neritic Estuaries major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 191 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Threskiornis bernieri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/05/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/05/2019.