EN
Madagascar Pond-heron Ardeola idae



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- C2a(ii) A2bcd+3bcd; C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered C2a(ii)
2012 Endangered C2a(ii)
2008 Endangered C2a(ii)
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,050,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 4,470,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1300-4000 medium estimated 2002
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number 2,000-6,000 individuals, roughly equivalent to 1,300-4,000 mature individuals (T. Dodman in litt. 2002).

Trend justification: Whilst the species remains fairly widespread, populations are low, and increasing exploitation at breeding sites is likely to increase the rate of population decline (ZICOMA 1999). As a result, a rapid and on-going population decline is suspected. The recently discovered breeding population on Mayotte is thought to be increasing (Rocamora 2004 in Ndang’ang’a and Sande 2008). In 1990 the species was considered to have undergone a significant recent decline (Burger et al. 1990).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola V Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Comoros N Extant Yes Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Mayotte (to France) N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant Yes
Somalia V Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Yemen V Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
French Southern Territories Europa
Kenya Lake Nakuru National Park
Kenya Masai Mara
Kenya Mwea National Reserve
Kenya Nairobi National Park
Kenya Ol Ari Nyiro
Madagascar Ambatovaky Special Reserve
Madagascar Analamerana Special Reserve
Madagascar Andohahela National Park - Section II
Madagascar Anjanaharibe Classified Forest
Madagascar Ankarafantsika National Park and Ampijoroa
Madagascar Ankarana Special Reserve
Madagascar Baly Bay National Park
Madagascar Bezavona Classified Forest
Madagascar Lake Alaotra NPA
Madagascar Lake Ihotry - Mangoky Delta Complex NPA
Madagascar Lake Itasy
Madagascar Mahavavy - Kinkony wetlands NPA
Madagascar Manambolomaty wetland complex and Tsimembo Classified Forest
Madagascar Mananara-North National Park
Madagascar Mangoky-Ankazoabo Complex NPA
Madagascar Mantadia National Park and Analamazaotra Special Reserve
Madagascar Marotandrano Special Reserve
Madagascar Masoala National Park
Madagascar Menabe forest complex
Madagascar Montagne d'Ambre National Park and Special Reserve
Madagascar Parc National d'Isalo
Madagascar Sahamalaza - Radama Islands National Marine Park
Madagascar Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park and Strict Nature Reserve
Madagascar Tsingy de Namoroka National Park
Madagascar Upper Rantabe Classified Forest
Madagascar Wetlands of the Tsiribihina delta and upper Tsiribihina river
Madagascar Zombitse-Vohibasia National Park and extension
Mayotte (to France) Bouéni Bay Mangroves
Mozambique Moebase region
Rwanda Akagera National Park
Seychelles Aldabra Special Reserve
Tanzania Kilombero Valley
Tanzania Selous Game Reserve
Uganda Queen Elizabeth National Park and Lake George
Zambia Sumbu National Park and Tondwa Game Management Area

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Micropterus salmoides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Hybridisation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Ardeola idae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/02/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/02/2020.