EN
Madagascar Pond-heron Ardeola idae



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- C2a(ii) A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd; C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Endangered C2a(ii)
2016 Endangered C2a(ii)
2012 Endangered C2a(ii)
2008 Endangered C2a(ii)
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,050,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 4,470,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000-2499 medium estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing medium inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.8 - - -

Population justification: The population size was estimated to be 531 breeding pairs in 2016, based on surveys, densities, and areas of potential suitable breeding locations (Rabarisoa et al. 2020). This would roughly equate to 1,062 mature individuals. GEPOMAY (2019) surveyed nearly 200 pairs on Mayotte, and based on Mayotte containing 20% of the breeding population, estimated the number of global pairs at c.1,000, equivalent to 2,000 mature individuals. The population size is therefore placed in the band 1,000-2,499 mature individuals.

Trend justification: This species is inferred to be declining due to ongoing wetland habitat loss and degradation (Kull 2012; D'Urban Jackson et al. 2019). Surveys and census reviews by Rabarisoa et al. (2020) found that the two largest and oldest breeding colonies on Madagascar had declined by c.53% and c.41% between 1993-2016, in addition to the disappearance of previous breeding sites on both Madagascar and Aldabra. The trend of the breeding population on Mayotte may be increasing (Rocamora 2004 in Ndang’ang’a and Sande 2008), however the increase may also be due to improved monitoring efforts (Jeanne et al. 2015 in Rabarisoa et al. 2020). The overall rate of population decline is suspected to fall in the band of 30-49%.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola V Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Comoros N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Mayotte (to France) N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant Yes
Somalia V Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Yemen V Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Kenya Mwea National Reserve
Kenya Nairobi National Park
Kenya Lake Nakuru National Park
Kenya Masai Mara
Madagascar Montagne d'Ambre National Park and Special Reserve
Madagascar Analamerana Special Reserve
Madagascar Bidia - Bezavona Classified Forest
Madagascar Ankarana Special Reserve
Madagascar Lake Sahaka - Analabe NPA and extension
Madagascar Masoala National Park
Madagascar Sahamalaza - Radama Islands National Marine Park
Madagascar Mahavavy - Kinkony wetlands NPA
Madagascar Baly Bay National Park
Madagascar Ankarafantsika National Park and Ampijoroa
Madagascar Marotandrano Special Reserve
Madagascar Tsingy de Namoroka National Park
Madagascar Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park and Strict Nature Reserve
Madagascar Manambolomaty wetland complex and Tsimembo Classified Forest
Madagascar Anjanaharibe Classified Forest
Madagascar Upper Rantabe Classified Forest
Madagascar Mananara-North Biosphere Reserve
Madagascar Ambatovaky Special Reserve
Madagascar Bezavona Classified Forest
Madagascar Lake Alaotra NPA
Madagascar Mantadia National Park and Analamazaotra Special Reserve
Madagascar Lake Itasy
Madagascar Wetlands of the Tsiribihina delta and upper Tsiribihina river
Madagascar Menabe forest complex
Madagascar Lake Ihotry - Mangoky Delta Complex NPA
Madagascar Mangoky-Ankazoabo Complex NPA
Madagascar Zombitse-Vohibasia National Park and extension
Madagascar Andohahela National Park - Section II
Madagascar Parc National d'Isalo
Mozambique Primeiras and Segundas Environmental Protection Area (APAIPS)
French Southern Territories Europa
Rwanda Akagera National Park
Seychelles Aldabra Special Reserve
Tanzania Selous Game Reserve
Tanzania Kilombero Valley
Uganda Queen Elizabeth National Park and Lake George
Mayotte (to France) Bouéni Bay Mangroves
Zambia Sumbu National Park and Tondwa Game Management Area
Kenya Ol Ari Nyiro
Comoros Dziani-Boudouni Lake
Madagascar Daraina (Loky - Manambato) SAPM
Madagascar Makira Natural Park
Madagascar Mangoky-Ankazoabo Complex NPA
Madagascar Menabe Central Corridor NPA
Madagascar Lake Ihotry Hunting Reserve and the Mangoky Delta complex
Kenya Lolldaiga-Mukogodo-Ewaso N'yiro
Comoros Mohéli Marine Park
Mayotte (to France) Lac de Karihani
Mayotte (to France) Dembeni Islets
Mayotte (to France) Ambato-Mtsangamouli Lagoon
Mayotte (to France) Badamiers mudflats
Madagascar Angodoka-Ambakoa (Besalampy)
Madagascar Lake Tsarasaotra
Madagascar Ambondrombe (Belo sur Tsiribihana) NPA
Madagascar Andreba NPA
Madagascar Antrema NPA
Madagascar Beanka NPA
Madagascar Bemanevika NPA / Tsaratanana massif (south-west)
Madagascar Lake Ihotry - Mangoky Delta Complex NPA
Madagascar Tsimembo - Manambolomaty - Bemamba Complex NPA
Madagascar Andohahela National Park - Section I
Madagascar Marojejy National Park
Madagascar Tsitongambarika NPA

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 1800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Micropterus salmoides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Ardeola ralloides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Hybridisation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Ardeola idae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/12/2022.