CR
Madagascar Fish-eagle Haliaeetus vociferoides



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
C2a(ii) C2a(i,ii); D C2a(i,ii); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2016 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2015 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2013 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2012 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2010 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2009 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 258,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 240 medium estimated 2010
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 17.1 - - -

Population justification: The current population is thought to be around 120 breeding pairs, equating to 240 mature individuals and roughly 360 individuals in total (R. Watson in litt. 2010, Razafimanjato et al. 2014).

Trend justification: Recent evidence has suggested that the population is stable, and may have been stable for some time (Johnson et al. 2009, R. Watson in litt. 2010). However, the southern portion of the species's range appears to have contracted and it has disappeared from the SW coast since 2005/2006 (L.-A. Rene de Roland in litt. 2011, Safford and Hawkins 2013). These observations add weight to the suspicion that the species's population is negatively affected by the on-going threats of habitat conversion and persecution. On this basis it is suspected to be undergoing a moderate decline.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Mauritius V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Madagascar Cape Anorontany Archipelago NPA
Madagascar Montagne d'Ambre National Park and Special Reserve
Madagascar Mitsio National Park
Madagascar Ankarana Special Reserve
Madagascar Ambavanankarana wetland
Madagascar Nosy Tanihely National Park
Madagascar Ampasindava Bay wetlands
Madagascar Sahamalaza - Radama Islands National Marine Park
Madagascar Loza Bay wetlands
Madagascar Ankobohobo wetland
Madagascar Mahajamba Bay - Anjavavy Complex
Madagascar Bombetoka Bay - Marovoay NPA
Madagascar Mahavavy - Kinkony wetlands NPA
Madagascar Baly Bay National Park
Madagascar Ankarafantsika National Park and Ampijoroa
Madagascar Cap Saint André forest and wetlands
Madagascar Maevatanana - Ambato-Boeny wetlands
Madagascar Tambohorano Wetland NPA
Madagascar Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park and Strict Nature Reserve
Madagascar Bemamba Wetland Complex
Madagascar Manambolomaty wetland complex and Tsimembo Classified Forest
Madagascar Wetlands of the Tsiribihina delta and upper Tsiribihina river
Madagascar Lake Ihotry - Mangoky Delta Complex NPA
Madagascar Montagne d'Ambre Future SAPM
Madagascar Lake Ihotry Hunting Reserve and the Mangoky Delta complex
Madagascar Iranja - Ankazoberavina - Russian Bay MPA
Madagascar Mitsio-Tsarabanjina MPA
Madagascar Angodoka-Ambakoa (Besalampy)
Madagascar Coastal area between Lokaro and Lavanono
Madagascar Ambondrombe (Belo sur Tsiribihana) NPA
Madagascar Ampasindava - Rigny Bay (East) NPA
Madagascar Antrema NPA
Madagascar Lake Ihotry - Mangoky Delta Complex NPA
Madagascar Tsimembo - Manambolomaty - Bemamba Complex NPA
Madagascar Analamerana Special Reserve
Madagascar Tsitongambarika NPA

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major resident
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable resident
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Medicine - human & veterinary - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Haliaeetus vociferoides. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2020.