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Maccoa Duck Oxyura maccoa
BirdLife is reviewing the status of this species for the 2017 Red List.
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Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened C1
2013 Near Threatened C1
2012 Near Threatened C1
2008 Near Threatened C1
2007 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 8,330,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1650-6700 poor suspected 2016
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6 - - -

Population justification: The population estimate for East Africa has been at 2,000-3,500 individuals (Berruti et al. 2005, 2007), but the severe decline has led to a population possibly as low as <300 individuals. Therefore the population is place in the range of 2,500-9,999 individuals, roughly equivalent to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded to 1,650-6,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The northern population of this species has suffered severe declines, perhaps by 50% in the late 1990s to early 2000s (Berruti et al. 2007), with the species now nearing extirpation in some countries (e.g. Kenya [D. Turner in litt. to P. Ndang'ang'a 2016]). The larger southern population appears stable after a period of range expansion and possible population increase (Berruti et al. 2005) but is considered smaller than previously thought and declines may have begun (Berruti et al. 2007). This information suggests that the overall population is in decline at a slow to moderate rate.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Burundi V Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant Yes
Malawi V Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
Sudan U Extant
Swaziland V Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Botswana Bokaa Dam
Botswana Phakalane sewage lagoons, near Gaborone
Kenya Lake Ol' Bolossat
South Africa Grasslands
Tanzania Arusha National Park and vicinity

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Domestic & urban waste water Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Oxyura maccoa. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2017.