Luzon Bleeding-heart Gallicolumba luzonica


Justification of Red List Category
This species is classified as Near Threatened because it probably has a moderately small population, which is thought to be undergoing a moderately rapid population decline owing primarily to hunting and logging. It is very secretive and further information may require it to be uplisted to Vulnerable.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as usually rather scarce or rare (Gibbs et al. 2001).

Trend justification
There are no data on population trends; however, the species is suspected to be in moderately rapid decline, owing to habitat loss and degradation, and hunting.

Distribution and population

Gallicolumba luzonica is endemic to Luzon (where it is everywhere scarce or rare), Philippines, in the Sierra Madre south to Quezon National Park and Mt Makiling, with a recent report from Mt Bulusan in the south, and also Polillo (recently rediscovered probably very rare) and Catanduanes (single specimen) (Collar et al. 1999).


This species is found in lowland forest (below 1,400 m), including selectively logged and otherwise poor secondary growth and even plantations. It forages on the ground, searching the leaf-litter for seeds, fallen fruits and invertebrates (Gibbs et al. 2001).


The species is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation through deforestation for timber extraction and agricultural expansion. It is vulnerable to snaring for the pet trade, but remains widespread and locally numerous.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Captive populations in Europe and North America are formally managed (Webster and Michael in litt. 2009). The number in captivity in North America has remained around 75 since 1988. A Population Management Plan was developed in 2009 by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums with the aim of reaching 100 birds in the North American zoo population. In-situ conservation efforts are also reported to be underway (Webster and Michael in litt. 2009).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to assess population size using playback. Regularly monitor to determine population trends. Investigate the extent of hunting by local residents. Control hunting where possible, perhaps using awareness campaigns. Protect significant areas of intact forest throughout its range. Attempt to rediscover the population on Catanduanes.



Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Mahood, S., Taylor, J.

Webster, R., Michael, G.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Gallicolumba luzonica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/05/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/05/2020.