EN
Ludwig's Bustard Neotis ludwigii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A4cd A4cd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered A4cd
2016 Endangered A4cd
2012 Endangered A4cd
2010 Endangered A4c,d
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,630,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium inferred 2015
Population trend Decreasing medium inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.3 - - -

Population justification: Allan (1994) carried out a census in the 1980s and estimated the entire population of Ludwig’s Bustard at 56,000–81,000 individuals, of which 50–75% were thought to occur in South Africa (Anderson 2000). A recent repeat of this census (2010-2012) in the South African part of the range estimated the current South African population at 114,000 birds (95% CI 87,000-148,000) (Shaw et al. 2015), and so the total population is inferred to fall within the range of 100,000-499,999 individuals. While there is therefore no clear evidence that the population has declined as projected (Jenkins et al. 2011), there is not enough information with which to understand the trend; Allan’s (1994) estimate was probably a significant underestimate, and the confidence intervals of the current estimate are very wide. Work is underway in Namibia to estimate the size of the Namibian population.

Trend justification: Based on collision rates with power lines from two areas, the best-case scenario indicates a decline of 51% over three generations in South Africa, which holds 50-75% of the global population (Jenkins et al. 2011). Given that power lines collisions also occur in Nambia (A. Scott and M. Scott in litt. 2010), and effective mitigation measures are yet to be implemented, a decline of 50-79% is estimated over the 31 year period from 1994-2025 (three generations).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Angola Iona National Park
Namibia Etosha National Park
Namibia Hobatere
Namibia Brandberg mountain
Namibia Namib-Naukluft Park
Namibia Sperrgebiet
South Africa Kalahari-Gemsbok National Park
South Africa Augrabies Falls National Park
South Africa Orange River Mouth Wetlands
South Africa Kamfers Dam
South Africa Mattheus-Gat Conservation Area
South Africa Haramoep and Black Mountain Mine
South Africa Bitterputs Conservation Area
South Africa Platberg-Karoo Conservancy
South Africa Camdeboo National Park
South Africa Olifants river estuary
South Africa Cedarberg - Koue Bokkeveld complex
South Africa Karoo National Park
South Africa Swartberg mountains
South Africa Anysberg Nature Reserve
South Africa Benfontein

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Desert Hot suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Neotis ludwigii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 31/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 31/10/2020.