Long-tailed Jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 34,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 89,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250000-749999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.5 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number c.19,800-53,000 breeding pairs, equating to c.39,700-106,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 15% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is c.265,000-710,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population is therefore placed in the band 250,000-749,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population size is estimated to be fluctuating (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola V Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Aruba (to Netherlands) V Extant
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Bahamas V Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus V Extant
Belgium N Extant
Belize V Extant
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Botswana V Extant
Brazil N Extant
Bulgaria V Extant
Canada N Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) V Extant
Chile N Extant
Colombia N Extant Yes
Costa Rica V Extant
Croatia V Extant
Cuba N Extant
Czechia N Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic V Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant
Fiji V Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant
Germany V Extant
Greece V Extant
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Haiti V Extant
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
Hungary N Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of V Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jamaica V Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant
Liberia V Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Malta V Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania V Extant
Mexico N Extant
Montenegro V Extant
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco V Extant
Namibia V Extant
Netherlands N Extant
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant
New Zealand V Extant
Nigeria V Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Palau N Extant Yes
Panama V Extant
Peru N Extant
Poland N Extant
Portugal V Extant
Qatar V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant
Serbia V Extant
Slovakia V Extant
Slovenia V Extant
Solomon Islands N Extant
South Africa V Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant
Spain V Extant
St Helena (to UK) V Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Togo V Extant
Turkey V Extant
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uruguay V Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Vanuatu N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greenland (to Denmark) Kitsissunnguit (Grønne Ejland)
Greenland (to Denmark) Heden
Greenland (to Denmark) Hochstetter Forland
Greenland (to Denmark) Stordal-Moskusoksefjord-Badlanddal-Loch Fyne-Myggbukta
Sweden Tavvavouma
Sweden Lake Tjålme – Valley of Lais
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Kevo
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Russia (European) Middle reaches of Bolshaya Rogovaya river
Greenland (to Denmark) Albrecht Sletten (Storsletten), Wollaston Forland
Greenland (to Denmark) South coast of Germania Land, and Slaedelandet
Greenland (to Denmark) Western part of Germania land
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden
Sweden Vindel Mountains (including Lake Tärna)
Sweden Påkketan
Norway Varangerfjord
Norway Hardangervidda
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Canada Placentia Bay
Sweden Middagsfjället – Dörrshöjden
Finland Maltio fjelds
New Zealand Campbell Islands
Norway Dovrefjell
Norway Varanger Peninsula
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Sassen-Bünsow Land
Norway Iešjávri
Norway Reisa
Senegal Northern Senegal shelf break
Mauritania Canary current shelf-break (south)
Morocco Canary current shelf-break (north)
Sweden Sjaunja

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Stercorarius longicaudus. Downloaded from on 02/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 02/12/2022.