VU
Long-tailed Duck Clangula hyemalis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A4bce

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable A4bce
2016 Vulnerable A4bce
2012 Vulnerable A4bce
2011 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 60,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 72,100,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2006
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number 3,200,000 to 3,750,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2017).

Trend justification: Surveys of the wintering population in the Baltic sea indicate that the species has undergone a precipitous decline there, from c.4,272,000 individuals in 1992-1993 to c.1,486,000 individuals in 2007-2009 (Skov et al. 2011). There is considerable uncertainty over the trends of smaller populations in Europe outside the Baltic sea, in Greenland and Iceland and East Siberia and North America, rendering the estimation of its global trend very difficult. The European wintering population is estimated to be declining by 30-49% (BirdLife International 2015). However, the overall rate of decline is likely to approach 50% over three generations (27 years), from 1993 until 2020. The population size in winter is estimated to be decreasing by 30-49% in 27 years (three generations).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Armenia V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia V Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Mexico N Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Turkey V Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada Baie de Gaspé
Canada Cap d'Espoir
Canada East Point
Canada Netitishi Point
Canada Prince Edward Point
Canada Tadoussac
Canada West End of Lake Ontario
Denmark Ronne Banke
Denmark Rønne Banke
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Pakri
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Finland Shallowbanks of Espoo-Helsinki archipelago
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Coastline of Probstei
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Pomeranian bay
Greenland (to Denmark) Hochstetter Forland
Greenland (to Denmark) South coast of Germania Land, and Slaedelandet
Greenland (to Denmark) Western part of Germania land
Latvia Gulf of Riga, west coast
Latvia Irbe strait
Lithuania Marine waters along the Curonian Spit
Norway Altaelvmunningen
Norway Balsfjord
Norway Blåfjella-Skjækerfjella
Norway Dovrefjell
Norway Froan
Norway Hardangervidda
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Norway Jæren
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Neiden- & Munkefjord
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Norway Persfjorden - Hamningberg
Norway Reisa
Norway Saltstraumen & Skjerstadfjorden
Norway Slettnes
Norway Stjørdalsfjord
Norway Tanamunningen
Norway Tautra & Svaet
Norway Varanger Peninsula
Norway Varangerfjord (including Hornøya and Reinøya)
Norway Været
Poland Central Polish coastal waters
Poland Pomeranian bay
Poland Slupsk bank
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay
Russia (Asian) Avachinskaya Bay and Starichkov Island
Russia (Asian) Bol'shaya River Estuary
Russia (Asian) Chaun delta
Russia (Asian) Inchoun and Uelen lagoons
Russia (Asian) Karaginskiy Island
Russia (Asian) Keremesit-Sundrun watershed
Russia (Asian) Korfa Gulf (northern part)
Russia (Asian) Kronotskiy Gulf
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir)
Russia (Asian) Lebediny refuge (Markovo depression)
Russia (Asian) Lena delta
Russia (Asian) Lesser Kuril Ridge and Kunashir Island
Russia (Asian) Lopatka Peninsula and First Kuril Strait
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
Russia (Asian) Nerpich'ye Lake and Kamchatka River delta
Russia (Asian) Parapol'skiy valley
Russia (Asian) San-Yuryakh
Russia (Asian) Sireniki shore of Chukotka
Russia (Asian) Terpyey-Tumus
Russia (Asian) Yana delta
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Burnaya River Mouth
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra
Russia (European) Vaygach island
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Adventdalen & Adventfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Forlandet National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordenskiöldkysten
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Northwest Spitsbergen National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) South Spitsbergen National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Southeast Svalbard Nature Reserve
Sweden Bank of Hoburg
Sweden Bay of Brå – Hävringe Island
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Northern Midsjö Bank
Sweden Southern Midsjö Bank
Sweden Taavavuoma
USA Barrow Canyon & Smith Bay
USA Beaufort Sea Nearshore
USA Chukchi Sea Nearshore
USA Kotzebue Sound 163W66N
USA Point Lay Marine

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Neogobius melanostomus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Pasteurella multocida Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Clangula hyemalis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/11/2019.