VU
Long-tailed Duck Clangula hyemalis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A4bce

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable A4bce
2016 Vulnerable A4bce
2012 Vulnerable A4bce
2011 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 60,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 72,100,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2006
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number 3,200,000 to 3,750,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2017).

Trend justification: Surveys of the wintering population in the Baltic sea indicate that the species has undergone a precipitous decline there, from c.4,272,000 individuals in 1992-1993 to c.1,486,000 individuals in 2007-2009 (Skov et al. 2011). There is considerable uncertainty over the trends of smaller populations in Europe outside the Baltic sea, in Greenland and Iceland and East Siberia and North America, rendering the estimation of its global trend very difficult. The European wintering population is estimated to be declining by 30-49% (BirdLife International 2015). However, the overall rate of decline is likely to approach 50% over three generations (27 years), from 1993 until 2020. The population size in winter is estimated to be decreasing by 30-49% in 27 years (three generations).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Armenia V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia V Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Mexico N Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Turkey V Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greenland (to Denmark) Eqalummiut Nunaat-Nassuttuup Nunaa
Greenland (to Denmark) Ikkattoq fjord and islands
Greenland (to Denmark) Hochstetter Forland
Lithuania Marine waters along the continental part of Lithuania
Lithuania Marine waters along the Curonian Spit
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Suur Väin strait
Estonia Hiiumaa islets
Estonia Kihnu strait
Estonia Pärnu bay
Estonia Väike Väin strait
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare coast
Estonia Sõrve peninsula
Latvia Gulf of Riga, west coast
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Iceland Arnarvatnsheidi-Tvidaegra
Iceland Veidivötn
Sweden Taavavuoma
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Sandemar
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Poland Vistula river mouth
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Finland Lågskär-Nyhamn
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Karunginjärvi lake
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Russia (European) Khaypudyrskaya Bay (Islands of B. Zelenets, Dolgi, Matveyev)
Russia (European) Torna-Shoina watershed
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Vaygach island
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra
Ukraine Lyman lake
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Baie de Vilaine
France Baie de Quiberon
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Cap Gris-nez
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Dundrum Inner Bay
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Inner Clyde
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Lochs of Harray and Stenness
United Kingdom Lochs of Spiggie and Brow
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom North Mainland Coast
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom South Westray Coast
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Sumburgh Head
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom Scapa Flow
United Kingdom Sounds around Wyre
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Lakes Lesina and Varano
Greenland (to Denmark) Albrecht Sletten (Storsletten), Wollaston Forland
Greenland (to Denmark) South coast of Germania Land, and Slaedelandet
Greenland (to Denmark) Western part of Germania land
Denmark Kiel Bay and adjacent waters
Denmark Ronne Banke
Denmark Rønne Banke
Norway Smøla archipelago
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Balsfjord
Norway Tanamunningen
Norway Neiden- & Munkefjord
Norway Varangerfjord
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Stjørdalsfjord
Norway Inner Trondheimsfjord
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Norway Gaulosen
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden
Denmark Marstal Bugt and the coast of south-west Langeland
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Isles of Langenwerder and Walfisch
Germany Sagasbank
Germany Western and northern coast of Fehmarn: Krummsteert-Puttgarden
Germany Hohwachter Bucht
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Ammersee
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Stoller Grund, Gabelsflach and Mittelgrund
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Eastern coast of Oldenburg: Grossenbroder Kai-Pelzerhaken
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Outer Wismarbucht
Germany Sea area Darß - Hiddensee with Plantagenetgrund
Germany Pomeranian bay
Ireland Inner Galway Bay
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Bank of Hoburg
Sweden Northern Midsjö Bank
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Risti islets
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Pärnu bay and Kihnu strait
Latvia Irbe strait
Poland Slupsk bank
Poland Central Polish coastal waters
Poland Pomeranian bay
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Russia (European) Seskar island
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay
Russia (European) Burnaya River Mouth
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
Russia (Asian) Korfa Gulf (northern part)
Russia (Asian) Lena delta
Russia (Asian) Azas Nature Reserve
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir)
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay
Russia (Asian) Terpyey-Tumus
Russia (Asian) Lesser Kuril Ridge and Kunashir Island
Russia (Asian) First Kuril strait
Russia (Asian) Yana delta
Russia (Asian) San-Yuryakh
Russia (Asian) Keremesit-Sundrun watershed
Russia (Asian) Chaun delta
Russia (Asian) Lebediny refuge (Markovo depression)
Russia (Asian) Inchoun and Uelen lagoons
Russia (Asian) Parapol'skiy valley
Estonia Kabli
Estonia Pakri
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Sutu bay
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare
Estonia Tagamõisa peninsula
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Rade de Lorient
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Camargue
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France La Dombes
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Canada Lambert Channel/Hornby Island Waters
Canada Point Lepreau/Maces Bay
Canada Witless Bay Islands
Canada Harrowby Bay
Canada Queen Maud Gulf
Canada Creswell Bay
Canada Markham Bay Eider Colony
Canada Niagara River Corridor
Canada Prince Edward County South Shore
Canada West End of Lake Ontario
Canada Cabot Head
Canada Netitishi Point
Canada North Point
Canada East Point
Canada Cap d'Espoir
Canada Baie de Gaspé
Canada Péninsule de Forillon
Canada Tadoussac
Canada Batture Batture aux Alouettes and mouth of Saguenay River
Canada Northeast James Bay Coast
Canada Nunaluk Spit to Herschel Island
Canada Babbage and Spring River Deltas
Canada Blow River Delta (Shingle Point to Tent Island)
Canada Shallow Bay, Big Slough and Swan Lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Norway Persfjorden - Hamningberg
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes
Sweden Bay of Brå – Hävringe Island
Kazakhstan Akzhan Lake
Poland Puck Bay
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Kevo
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Sweden Southern Midsjö Bank
USA Eastern Beaufort Sea Lagoons and Barrier Islands
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Eastern bight of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Coastline of Probstei
Germany East- and south-east coast of Fehmarn
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Schlei
Germany Southern shore of Eckernförder Bucht
Germany Untermain
Ireland Donegal Bay
Ireland Drumcliff Bay and Ballintemple
Ireland Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula
Poland East Border Waters
Sweden Lake Laidaure
USA Beaufort Sea Nearshore
USA Barrow Canyon & Smith Bay
Norway Altaelvmunningen
USA Chukchi Sea Nearshore
USA Kotzebue Sound 163W66N
USA Point Lay Marine
Kazakhstan Salmanykol lake
Norway Dovrefjell
Norway Hardangervidda
Norway Slettnes
Norway Varanger Peninsula
Norway Varangerfjord (including Hornøya and Reinøya)
Norway Saltstraumen & Skjerstadfjorden
Norway Været
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Adventdalen & Adventfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Northwest Spitsbergen National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) South Spitsbergen National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Southeast Svalbard Nature Reserve
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordenskiöldkysten
Norway Froan
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Forlandet National Park
Norway Jæren
Norway Tautra & Svaet
Norway Iešjávri
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Norway Reisa
Norway Blåfjella-Skjækerfjella
Norway Persfjorden-Hamningberg
Finland Shallowbanks of Espoo-Helsinki archipelago
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Kunda
Estonia Väinameri
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Russia (Asian) Sireniki shore of Chukotka
Russia (Asian) Karaginskiy Island
Russia (Asian) Nerpich'ye Lake and Kamchatka River delta
Russia (Asian) Kronotskiy Gulf
Russia (Asian) Avachinskaya Bay and Starichkov Island
Russia (Asian) Bol'shaya River Estuary
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
Russia (Asian) Lopatka Peninsula and First Kuril Strait
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Lake Tjålme – Valley of Lais
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Sweden Coastal area of Ystad – Hörte

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Neogobius melanostomus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Pasteurella multocida Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Clangula hyemalis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/07/2020.