Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be fluctuating, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
The European population is estimated at 11,800-19,200 pairs, which equates to 23,700-38,400 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 17% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 139,000-226,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. It is placed in the band 100,000 to 499,999 mature individuals.
The population is suspected to fluctuate in response to vole populations (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). The European trend is currently estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015) however accounting for fluctuations the global population trend for this species is estimated to be stable.
Behaviour North African birds are resident, but birds breeding in Eurasia migrate south to North Africa and southern Asia, leaving their breeding grounds in August and September and returning in March and April (del Hoyo et al. 1994). It is generally observed singly, in pairs or in small family groups, but is more gregarious on migration when larger flocks can form (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Habitat It is a species of open areas, particularly steppe and semi-desert, and has been recorded up to 3,500 m (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Diet It feeds mainly on small mammals (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Breeding site The nest is made on cliff ledges and crags (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Management information Birds require sufficient outcrops, trees or disused nests on which to build their own nests (del Hoyo et al. 1994).
The population in Israel declined as a result of pesticide poisoning in the 1950s, but has since recovered (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001), however afforestation remains a threat (Friedemann et al. 2011). It is very highly vulnerable to the impacts of potential wind energy developments (Strix 2012). The species is also threatened by habitat destruction through agricultural intensification which may also reduce prey species. An increase in orchards and vineyards has reduced suitable habitat in Bulgaria (Demerdzhiev et al. 2014). Electrocution has also caused fatalities (Mebs and Schmidt 2006). In Saudi Arabia, stone quarrying has reduced populations (Global Raptor Information Network 2015). In China, rubbish and waste materials used in nest construction were identified as potential causes of nest failures (Wu et al. 2008). In its Sahelian range, the species is vulnerable to habitat degradation through wood harvesting, overgrazing, burning and exposure to pesticides (Thiollay 2007).
Text account compilers
Khwaja, N., Symes, A., Ashpole, J, Wheatley, H.
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Buteo rufinus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/12/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/12/2018.