Little Tern Sternula albifrons


BBC. 2017. Crimdon little tern nests targeted by vandals with dogs.

BirdLife International. 2000. The Development of Boundary Selection Criteria for the Extension of Breeding Seabird Special Protection Areas into the Marine Environment. OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic. Vlissingen (Flushing).

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

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Catry, T.; Ramos, J.A.; Martins, J.; Peste, F.; Trigo, S.; Paiva, V.H.; Almeida, A.; Luis, A.; Palma, J.; Andrade, P.J. 2006. Intercolony and annual differences in the diet and feeding ecology of little tern adults and chicks in Portugal. Condor 108(2): 366-376.

de Silva, R.I. 1991. Status and conservation of the breeding seabirds of Sri Lanka. In: Croxall. J.P. (ed.), Seabird Status and Conservation: A Supplement, pp. 205-211. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, UK.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

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Denbighshire County Council Countryside Service. 2015. Gronant Little Tern Report 2015.

Fasola, M.; Canova, L. 1996. Conservation of gull and tern colony sites in north-eastern Italy, an internationally important bird area. Colonial Waterbirds 19: 59-67.

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IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-3. Available at: (Accessed: 10 December 2019).

Magella, G.; Brousseau, P. 2001. Does culling predatory gulls enhance the productivity of breeding common terns? Journal of Applied Ecology 38: 1-8.

Medeiros, R.; Ramos, J. A.; Paiva, V. H.; Almeida, A.; Pedro, P.; Antunes, S. 2007. Signage reduces the impact of human disturbance on little tern nesting success in Portugal. Biological Conservation 135: 99-106.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. 2003. Little Tern (Sterna albifrons) Recovery Plan.

Perrow, M.R.; Skeate, E.R.; Lines, P.; Brown, D.; Tomlinson, M.L. 2006. Radio telemetry as a tool for impact assessment of wind farms: The case of Little Terns Sterna albifrons at Scroby Sands, Norfolk, UK. Ibis 148: 57-75.

Ratcliffe, N.; Schmitt, S.; Mayo, A.; Tratalos, J.; Drewitt, A. 2008. Colony habitat selection by little terns Stemula albifrons in East Anglia: Implications for coastal management. Seabird 21: 55-63.

Richards, A. 1990. Seabirds of the northern hemisphere. Dragon's World Ltd, Limpsfield, U.K.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Tapper, S.C. 1992. Game heritage: An ecological review from shooting and gamekeeping records. Game Conservancy Ltd, Fordingbridge.

Tavecchia, G.; Baccetti, N.; Serra, L. 2006. Modelling survival and movement probability of Little Tern Sterna albifrons at a post-breeding moulting site: the effect of the colony of origin. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 560-561. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.

Taylor, I.R.; Roe, E.L. 2004. Feeding ecology of Little Terns Sterna albifrons sinensis in south-eastern Australia and the effects of pilchard mass mortality on breeding success and population size . Marine and Freshwater Research 55(8): 799-808.

Urban, E.K.; Fry, C.H.; Keith, S. 1986. The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Sternula albifrons. Downloaded from on 16/01/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 16/01/2021.