Little Tern Sternula albifrons


Taxonomic note
Sternula albifrons (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Sterna.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 57 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 279,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 152,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.190,000-410,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 36,000-53,000 pairs, which equates to 71,900-106,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in China; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Korea and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Japan (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown or increasing trends (Wetlands International 2015). In Europe, the population size trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso V Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Colombia V Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant Yes
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Fiji V Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kiribati V Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta V Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant
Mauritius N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia V Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) V Extant
New Zealand N Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Samoa V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone V Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Solomon Islands N Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan U Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Montenegro Ulcinj saltpans
Azerbaijan Karayazi forest
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Glynanyi island
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Pirsagat Islands and Los Island
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Lithuania Kretuonas Landscape Reserve
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Varduva River and Varduva Reservoir
Lithuania Islauzas fish-ponds
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Latvia Pape
Portugal Castro Marim
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon)
Portugal Santo André and Sancha lagoons
Portugal Tejo estuary
Portugal Ria de Aveiro
Portugal Sado estuary
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Ireland Boyne estuary
Ireland Dublin Bay
Ireland North Wicklow coastal marshes
Ireland Ballycotton, Ballynamona and Shanagarry
Ireland Magharee Islands, Mucklaghmore and Illaunbarnagh
Ireland Aran Islands (parts)
Ireland Inishkea Islands
Ireland Inishglora and Inishkeeragh
Ireland Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula
Ireland Roaninish
Ireland Inishkeeragh and Illancrone
Ireland Inishbofin, Inisdooey and Inisbeg
Ireland Tory Island
Ireland Lady's Island Lake
Ireland Rogerstown estuary
Ireland Connemara Islands
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans
Turkey Meriç Delta
Turkey Gediz Delta
Turkey Büyük Menderes Delta
Turkey Sultan Marsh
Turkey Seyfe Lake
Turkey Ereğli Plain
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Tuzla lake
Turkey Akyatan Lake
Turkey Agyatan Lake
Turkey Yumurtalik lagoons
Palestinian Authority Territories Wadi Gaza
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Coastal area (including seaside meadows) of Eastern Öland
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Sweden Bay of Skälder
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Malopolska Wisla river gap
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Slowinska Site
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Zegrzynski reservoir
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece River Axios
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Evros delta
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou)
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalochori lagoon
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Duinen en Lage Land Texel
Netherlands Rottumerplaat
Netherlands Rottumeroog
Netherlands Westplaat
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Zoommeer
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Krunnit archipelago
Hungary Inner Somogy
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Beglitskaya sand-spit
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Koporski Bay
Russia (European) Kulaksay lowland
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Russia (European) Kamsko-Ikski area
Russia (European) Upper Mologa river (lake Verestovo)
Russia (European) Savtsinskoye marsh
Russia (European) Zavidovo Reserve, including Lotoshinski, Klinski and Diatlovo fish ponds
Russia (European) Bulgarski
Russia (European) Rybinsk reservoir
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Nizhnekamskaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Salt lakes in the Primorsko-Akhtarsk area
Spain Cádiz bay
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Odiel and Tinto marshes and Huelva coastal lagoons
Spain Mata and Torrevieja lagoons
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans
Spain El Hondo wetland
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Mar Menor coastal lagoon
Spain Muela mountain range and Cape Tiñoso
Spain Wetlands of western Almería
Spain Mountain range and saltpans at Cabo de Gata
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain River Piedras marshes and Rompido sandbank
Spain Lácara-Morante
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Bilosarajs'ka peninsula
Ukraine Kryva peninsula
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Kuyal'nyts'kyj lyman
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Tyligul's'kyj lyman
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Dnestr valley between Staryj Martyniv and Marynopil' villages
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Solonyj Lyman lake
Ukraine Lake near Magazinka village
Ukraine Debal'tsivs'ke lake
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Ile de Goulmedec
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Archipel de Molène
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Mars sur Allier
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etang du Bagnas
France Cordon lagunaire de Sète à Agde
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Camargue
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Basse vallée du Var
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Domaine d'Orx
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Littoral Augeron
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Etang des Landes
France Cap Gris-nez
France Bonne Anse
France Marais et estuaire de la Seudre
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
United Kingdom Caithness Cliffs
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Great Yarmouth North Denes
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Laggan Peninsula
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Gruinart Flats
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Monach Islands
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Uist Machair and Islands
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Rinns of Islay
United Kingdom Uists Machairs, Lochs and Coast
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Eoligarry, Barra
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom Stornoway to Back, Lewis
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
Italy Pantani di Vendicari e di Capo Passero
Italy Stagnone di Marsala and Trapani saltpans
Italy Cervia saltpans
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Taro river
Italy Po Delta
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Isonzo mouth, Cona island and Panzano Gulf
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Ortazzo and Ortazzino
Italy Oristano wetlands
Italy Torrile LIPU reserve
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Italy River Po from Dora Baltea mouth to Scrivia mouth
Italy Manfredonia Gulf wetlands
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Sweden Ottenby
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne
Denmark Tissø, Lille Åmose and Hallenslev Mose
Denmark Islands and coast between Skælskør Fjord and Glænø
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Nakskov Fjord and Indrefjord
Denmark Islands in Smålandshavet, north of Lolland
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt
Denmark Karrebæk, Dybsø and Avnø Fjords (coasts and islands)
Denmark Lillebælt
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Venø and Venø Sund
Denmark Harboøre Tange, Plet Enge & Gjeller Sø
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark Løgstør Bredning
Denmark Parts of Randers and Mariager Fjords
Denmark Vestamager and adjacent sea area
Denmark South Læsø
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
Denmark Nærå Coast and Æbelø area
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Horsens Fjord, Svanegrunden & Endelave
Denmark Stavnsfjord and adjacent waters
Denmark Ørkenen and Totten (Anholt Island)
Denmark Mågerodde and Karby Odde
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Fanø
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Italy Trebbia river (lower course)
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Isles of Langenwerder and Walfisch
Germany Eastern coast of Oldenburg: Grossenbroder Kai-Pelzerhaken
Germany Western and northern coast of Fehmarn: Krummsteert-Puttgarden
Germany Coastline of Probstei
Germany Southern shore of Eckernförder Bucht
Germany Schlei
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Isles of Oie and Kirr
Germany Strand lakes and fish-ponds in south-western Fehmarn
Germany Hohwachter Bucht
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Heerter See
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Halligen Oland, Langeneß, Nordstrandischmoor, Gröde und Hooge
Belgium Voorhaven Zeebrugge and Baai van Heist
Egypt Lake Bardawil
Egypt Lake Manzala
Egypt Lake Burullus
Ghana Densu Delta Ramsar Site and vicinity
Ghana Keta Lagoon Ramsar Site
Ghana Songor Ramsar Site
Gambia Tanji River (Karinti) Bird Reserve
Guinea Rio Kapatchez
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Mozambique Bazaruto Archipelago
Senegal Parc National de la Langue de Barbarie
Denmark Northwestern Kattegat
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet [DK130]
Lithuania Nemunas River between Prienai & Lengveniskes settlements
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Turkey Saros Bay
Turkey Bakırçay Delta
Israel Carmel coast
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Russia (European) Southern coast of the Neva bay
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
Russia (European) Neman river Delta and the coast of the Curonian Bay
Malaysia Pulau Bruit National Park
Philippines Buguey wetlands
Japan Lake Hamanako, Enshunada
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake
South Korea Cheonsu Bay
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary
Belarus Prypiackija baloty
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare
Estonia Väinameri
Russia (European) Shabel'skaya sand-spit
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Latvia Liepaja lake
Latvia Ziemupe
Latvia Dviete flood-plain
Latvia Ovisi
Latvia Uzava coast
Latvia Augsdaugava
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Slitere and Zilie kalni
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Piejura
Latvia Randu meadows
Bulgaria Galata
Portugal Mondego Estuary
Portugal Salinas de Alverca e do Forte da Casa
Portugal Albufeira do Caia
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Pointe de Grave
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Etang de Lindre
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Iles d'Hyères
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Cap Sizun
France Marais salants de Noirmoutier
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volga river between Gorodets and N.Novgorod
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volga river between N.Novgorod and Pamyat' Parizhskoi Kommuny village
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Oka river in Vachski district of North Novgorod region and adjacent areas of Vladimir region
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Oka river in Navashinski district
Russia (European) Shumerlinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kharitonovsky complex of lakes and marshes
Russia (European) Curonian Bay
Russia (European) Sura environs
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Russia (European) Nothern part of Gor'koe reservoir with spurs
Russia (European) Varnavinski zakaznik
Russia (European) Forests, bogs and gathering of the Common Cranes near Voskresenskoye village
Russia (European) Marshes near Pavlovskoye Zaoch'ye and adjoining floodplain of Oka river
Russia (European) Kurmyshskaya flood-land
Russia (European) Floodplain of Moksha river and Common Crane autumn aggegation near villages Khohlikha and Shaprikha
Russia (European) Forests and wetlands in the valley of the Nuzhma river
Russia (European) Floodplain of Oka river up-stream of the Murom
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Oka river between the mouth of Klyaz'ma river and Dzerzhinsk
Afghanistan Hari Rud valley
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Voshmigir dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamidieh (Omidiyeh) plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iraq Habbaniya Lake
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Pomorie Lake
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Belarus Turaŭskaje balonnie
Uzbekistan Rogatoe Lake
Uzbekistan Kagan Fish Farm
United Kingdom Gibraltar Point
United Kingdom Sleibhtean Agus Chladach Thiriodh
United Kingdom Benacre to Easton Bavents
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Ukraine Desna river part of National Nature Park "Desnyans'ko-Staroguts'kyj"
Poland Biebrza river valley
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Italy Ticino river
Russia (European) Budary lakes
Russia (European) Kissyk area
Poland Skoki Gravel-Pit
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Trzebiatow Site
Poland Skoki Gravel-Pit
Poland Pilica River Valley
Poland Wizna Swamps
Russia (European) Sulakskaya bay
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Netherlands Duinen Terschelling
Turkmenistan Ogurjaly island
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Turkey Ceyhan Delta
Turkey Seyhan Delta
Hungary Dráva
Croatia North Part of Zadar Archipelago
Croatia Upper Drava River
Croatia Sava River Near Hruscica
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Italy Asinara island, Piana island and Stintino peninsula
Italy Coastal stretches from Coghinas river-mouth to Cape Testa
Italy Tavolara archipelago, Cape Ceraso and Cape Figari
Italy Cagliari wetlands
Italy Palmas Gulf wetlands
Taiwan, China Kaomei Wetlands
Belarus Dniepr floodplain Lojeŭ-Žary
Russia (European) Floodplain of Ilek river near Pokrovka
Russia (European) Tyuleni island
Russia (European) Kazachka
Russia (European) Saraly
Uzbekistan Zholdyrbas Lake
Denmark Agger Tange and Krik Vig
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Dollart
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Drennhauser Hinterdeich
Germany Sagasbank and eastern coast of Oldenburg
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Confluenţa Olt - Dunăre
Romania Limanu - Herghelia
Romania Black Sea
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
United Kingdom South Uist Machair and Lochs
United Kingdom The Wash
Poland Turek Site
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Denmark Coast between Dokkedal and Lyngså
Denmark Glomstrup Vig, Agerø, Munkholm and Katholm Odde, Lindholm, and Rotholme
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Skælskør Nor, Skælskør Fjord and Borreby Mose
Denmark Sprogø and Halsskov Rev
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Lithuania Nemunas River between Smalininkai & Kulautuva settlements
Lithuania Nemunas River between Pelesiskes & Balbieriskis settlements
Lithuania Visbarai fish-farm
Poland Puck Bay
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Liwiec river valley
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Woniesc reservoir
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Calowanie Swamp
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
Belarus Braslav lakes
Spain Costa da Morte
Spain Cape Busto-Luanco
Spain Bahía de Almería
Spain Tabarca - Cabo de Palos
Spain Plataforma Marina del Delta del Ebro - Columbretes
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake - Marine
South Korea Cheonsu Bay - Marine
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary - Marine
Japan Northern Hokkaido - Marine
Japan Enshunada - Marine
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay / Esashi, Menashidomari / Teurito island - Marine
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons - Marine
Egypt El Malaha / Lake Manzala - Marine
Egypt Lake Burullus Protected Area - Marine
Senegal Parc National de la Langue de Barbarie - marine
Philippines Buguey wetlands - Marine
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Cyprus Oroklini Lake
Solomon Islands Gizo
Portugal Ria Formosa - Oceânica
Belarus Polesye valley of river Buh
France Jaudy et Sept-Iles
Serbia Donje Podrinje
Russia (European) Yamskaya steppe and adjacent technical reservoirs
Tunisia Salines de Thyna
Italy Punta Alberete, Canna Valley, San Vitale Pinewood, and Pialassa of Baiona
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Netherlands Abtskolk & De Putten
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Delta Coast
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Westkapelle, Vroon, natuurbouw
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Luitemaa
United Arab Emirates Alqurm Wa Lehfeiyah (Khor Kalba)
Philippines Lake Naujan
Italy Northern Sardinia
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Guinea-Bissau Cantanhez forests
Sierra Leone Yawri Bay
Senegal Kalissaye Avifaunal Reserve
Senegal Delta du Saloum - marine
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic marginal resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Larus novaehollandiae Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Vulpes vulpes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Sternula albifrons. Downloaded from on 29/11/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 29/11/2020.