LC
Little Penguin Eudyptula minor



References

Agnew, P., Lalas, C., Wright, J. & Dawson, S. 2016. Annual variation in recruitment and age-specific survival of Little Penguins, Eudyptula minor. Emu 116 (1): 62-70. DOI:10.1071/MU15072.

Banks, J.C., Mitchell, A.D., Waas, J.R. & Paterson, A.M. 2002. An unexpected pattern of molecular divergence within the blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) complex. Notornis 49: 29-38.

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Şekercioğlu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13486.

Cannell, B., Campbell, K., Fitzgerald, L., Lewis, J., Baran, I. & Stephens, N. 2016. Anthropogenic trauma is the most prevalent cause of mortality in Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) in Perth, Western Australia. Emu 116: 52-61.

Cannell, B.L., Chambers, L.E., Wooller, R.D. & Bradley, J.S. 2012. Poorer breeding by little penguins near Perth, Western Australia is correlated with above average sea surface temperatures and a stronger Leeuwin Current. Marine & Freshwater Research 63: 914-925.

Cannell, B.L., Pollock, K., Bradley, S., Wooller, R., Sherwin, W. & Sinclair, J. 2011. Augmenting mark-recapture with beach counts to estimate the abundance of little penguins on Penguin Island, Western Australia. Wildlife Research 38: 491-500.

Carlile, N., Priddel, D., O’Neill, L., Wheeler, R. & Walraven, E. 2015. A trial translocation of Little Penguin Eudyptula minor fledglings. Marine Ornithology 43: 223-229.

Carroll, G., Everett, J. D., Harcourt, R., Slip, D. & Jonsen, I. 2016. High sea surface temperatures driven by a strengthening current reduce foraging success by penguins. Scientific reports 6: 22236. DOI: 10.1038/srep22236.

Cavallo, C., Chiaradia, A., Deagle, B.E., McInnes, J.C., Sánchez, S., Hays, G. C. & Reina, R.D. 2018. Molecular analysis of predator scats reveals role of salps in temperate inshore food webs. Frontiers in Marine Science 5: 381.

Chiaradia, A. 2013. The smallest penguin faces big challenges. In: T. De Roy, M. Jones and J. Cornthwaite (eds), Penguins: Their World, their Ways, CSIRO Publishing, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Chiaradia, A., Forero, M. G. Hobson, K. A. & Cullen, J. M. 2010. Changes in diet and trophic position of a top predator ten years after a mass mortality of a key prey. ICES Journal of Marine Science 67: 1710-1720.

Chiaradia, A., McBride, J., Murray, T. & Dann, P. 2007a. Effect of fog on the arrival time in little penguins Eudyptula minor - a clue for visual orientation? Journal of Ornithology 148: 229 - 233.

Chiaradia, A., Ropert-Coudert, Y., Kato, A., Mattern, T. & Yorke, J. 2007b. Diving behaviour of Little Penguins from four colonies across their whole distribution range: bathymetry affecting diving effort and fledging success. Marine Biology 151 (4): 1535 - 1542.

Chiaradia, A.F. & Kerry, K.R. 1999. Nest attendance and breeding success in the little penguins Eudyptula minor at Phillip Island, Australia. Marine Ornithology 27: 13-20.

Chilvers, B.L. 2017. Comparison of New Zealand’s little blue penguins, Eudyptula minor diving behaviour. Polar Biology 40(10): 1965-1974.

Clark, J.A., Banks, J.C., Agnew, P., Gamboa, R., Mason, A. & Waas, J.R. 2015. Pairing patterns in mixed-clade colonies of little blue penguins. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 42: 33.

Collins, M., Cullen, J. M. & Dann, P. 1999. Seasonal and annual foraging movements of little penguins from Phillip Island, Victoria. Wildlife Research 26: 705 - 721.

Crawford, R. J. M., Ellenberg, U., Frere, E., Hagen, C., Baird, K., Brewin, P. Crofts, S., Glass, J., Mattern, T. & Pompert, J. 2017. Tangled and drowned: A global review of penguin bycatch in fisheries. Endangered Species Research 34: 373–396.

Cullen, J. M., Montague, T. L. & Hull, C. 1992. Food of little penguins Eudyptula minor in Victoria: comparison of three localities between 1985 and 1988. Emu 91(5): 318 - 341.

Daniel, T., Chiaradia, A., Logan, M. Quinn, G.P. & Reina, R.D. 2007. Synchronized group association in little penguins Eudyptula minor. Animal Behaviour 74: 1241-1248. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.01.029.

Dann, P. & Chambers, L. 2013. Ecological effects of climate change on little penguins Eudyptula minor and the potential economic impact on tourism. Climate Research 58(1 ): 67-79.

Dann, P. & Cullen, J.M. 1990. Survival, patterns of reproduction, and lifetime reproductive output in little blue penguins Eudyptula minor on Phillip Island, Victoria, Australia. In: . S. Davis and J. T. Darby (eds), Penguin Biology, pp. 63-84. Academic Press, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Dann, P. 1994. The abundance, breeding distribution and nest sites of blue penguins in Otago, New Zealand. Notornis 41(3): 157–166. Available at: http://notornis.osnz.org.nz/system/files/Notornis_41_3_157.pdf.

Dann, P. 2013. Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor). In: P.G. Borboroglu and P.D. Boersma (eds), Penguins Natural History and Conservation, pp. 305-324. UW Press, Seattle U.S.A.

Dann, P., Norman, F.I., Cullen, J.M., Neira, F.J. & Chiaradia, A. 2000. Mortality and breeding failure of little penguins Eudyptula minor in Victoria, 1995-6 following a widespread mortality of pilchard Sardinops sagax. Marine and Freshwater Research 51 (4): 355-362.

del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A. & Sargatal, J. (ed.). 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Ekanayake, K. B., Sutherland, D. R., Dann, P., & Weston, M. A. 2015a. Out of sight but not out of mind: corvids prey extensively on eggs of burrow-nesting penguins. Wildlife Research 42: 509-517.

Ekanayake, K.B., Weston, M.A., Dann, P. & Sutherland, D.R. 2015b. Corvids congregate to selectively exploit eggs of a burrow-nesting seabird. Austral Ecology 41: 291-301.

Fraser, M.M. and Lalas, C. 2004. Seasonal variation in the diet of blue penguins Eudyptula minor at Oamaru, New Zealand. Notornis 51(1): 7-15.

Gales, R.P. & Pemberton, D. 1985. Breeding season and double brooding of the little penguin Eudyptula minor in New Zealand. Emu 85: 127-130.

Gales, R.P. & Pemberton, D. 1990. Seasonal and local variation in the diet of the little penguin, Eudyptula minor, in Tasmania. Australian Journal of Wildlife Research 17: 231-259.

Gill, B.J., Bell, B.D., Chambers, G.K., Medway, D.G., Palma, R.L., Scofield, R.P., Tennyson, A.J.D. & Worthy, T.H. 2010. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica. Ornithological Society of New Zealand Inc.

Goldsworthy, S.D., Giese, M., Gales, R.P., Brothers, N. & Hamill, J. 2000. Effects of the Iron Baron oil spill on little penguins (Eudyptula minor). II. Post-release survival of rehabilitated oiled birds. Wildlife Research 27(6): 573-582.

Grosser S., Rawlence, N.J., Anderson, C.N.K., Smith, I.W.G., Scofield, R.P. & Waters, J.M. 2016. Invader or resident? Ancient-DNA reveals rapid species turnover in New Zealand little penguins. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 283: 20152879.

Grosser, S., Burridge, C.P., Peucker, A.J. & Waters, J.M. 2015. Coalescent modelling suggest recent secondary-contact of cryptic penguin species. PLoS ONE 10: e0144966.

Grosser, S., Scofield, R.P. & Waters, J.M. 2017. Multivariate skeletal analyses support a taxonomic distinction between New Zealand and Australian Eudyptula penguins (Sphenisciformes: Spheniscidae). Emu 117: 276-283.

Hinder, S.L., Gravenor, M.B., Edwards, M., Ostle, C., Bodger, O.G., Lee, P.L.M., Walne, A.W. & Hays, G.C. 2013. Multi-decadal range changes vs. thermal adaptation for north east Atlantic oceanic copepods in the face of climate change. Global Change Biology 20 (1): 140–146.

IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 December 2020).

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 04 September 2021).

Johannesen, E., Houston, D. & Russel, J. 2003. Increased survival and breeding performance of double breeders in little penguins Eudyptula minor, New Zealand: evidence for individual bird quality? Journal of Avian Biology 34: 198-210.

Klomp, N.I. & Wooller, R.D. 1988. Diet of little penguin, Eudyptula minor, from Penguin Island, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 39: 633-639.

Klomp, N.I. & Wooller, R.D. 1991. Patterns of arrival and departure by breeding little penguins at Penguin Island, Western Australia. Emu 91(1): 32-35.

Lyle, J.M., Bell, J.D., Chuwen, B.M., Barrett, N., Tracey, S.R. & Buxton, C.D. 2014. Assessing the impacts of gill netting in Tasmania: Implications for by-catch and biodiversity. FRDC Project No 2010/016.

Macey, S., Meadows, M., Clark, J.A., Banks, J.C., Agnew, P. & Waas, J.R. 2015. The blue in little 'blue' penguins: quantifying colour by sex and clade. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 42: 33-34.

Marchant, S. & Higgins, P.J. 1990. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds, 1: ratites to ducks. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Mattern, T. & Wilson, K.-J. 2018. New Zealand penguins – current knowledge and research priorities. Report to Birds New Zealand. https://www.birdsnz.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/1904-NZ-Penguin-Research-Priorities-Report-Mattern-Wilson.pdf.

Meyer, X., MacIntosh, A. J. J., Chiaradia, A., Kato, A., Mattern, T., Sueur, C. & Ropert-Coudert, Y. 2017. Shallow divers, deep waters and the rise of behavioural stochasticity. Marine Biology 164(6): 149.

Miyazaki, M. & Nakagawa, S. 2015. Geographical variation in male calls and the effect on female response in little penguins. Acta Ethologica 18: 227-234.

Nisbet, I.C.T. & Dann, P. 2009. Reproductive performance of little penguins in relation to year, age, pair-bond duration, breeding date and individual quality. Journal of Avian Biology 40: 296-308.

Pelletier, L., Chiaradia, A., Kato, A. & Ropert-Coudert, Y. 2014. Fine-scale spatial age segregation in the limited foraging area of an inshore seabird species, the little penguin. Oecologia 176: 399–408. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-014-3018-3.

Peucker, A.J., Dann, P. & Burridge, C.P. 2009. Range-wide phylogeography of the little penguin (Eudyptula minor): evidence of long-distance dispersal. Auk 126(2): 397-408.

Poupart, T.A., Waugh, S.M., Bost, C., Bost, C.-A., Dennis, T., Lane, R., Rogers, K., Sugishita, J., Taylor, G.A., Wilson, K.-J., Zhang, J. & Arnould, J.P.Y. 2017. Variability in the foraging range of Eudyptula minor across breeding sites in central New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 44(3): 225-244.

Preston, T. J., Ropert-Coudert, Y., Kato, A., Chiaradia, A., Kirkwood, R., Dann, P. & Reina, R.D. 2008. Foraging behaviour of little penguins Eudyptula minor in an artificially modified environment. Endangered Species Research 4: 95-103.

Preston, T.J., Chiaradia, A., Caarels, S.A. & Reina, R.D. 2010. Fine scale biologging of an inshore marine animal. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 390(2): 196-202.

Ramírez, F., Afán, I., Davis, L.S. & Chiaradia, A. 2017. Climate impacts on global hot spots of marine biodiversity. Science Advances 3(2): e1601198.

Rodríguez, A., Chiaradia, A., Wasiak, P., Renwick, L. & Dann, P. 2016. Waddling on the dark side: Ambient light affects attendance behavior of Little Penguins. Journal of Biological Rhythms 31(2): DOI: 10.1177/0748730415626010.

Rodríguez, A., Holmberg, R., Dann, P. & Chiaradia, A. 2018. Penguin colony attendance under artificial lights for ecotourism. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological and Integrative Physiology 329(8-9): 457-464.

Ropert-Coudert, Y., Kato, A. & Chiaradia, A. 2009. Impact of small-scale environmental perturbations on local marine food resources: a case study of a predator, the little penguin. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 276: 4105-4109.

Salton, M., Saraux, C., Dann, P. & Chiaradia, A. 2015. Carry-over body mass effect from winter to breeding in a resident seabird, the little penguin. Royal Society Open Science 2(1): 140390.

Sánchez, S., Reina, R.D., Kato, A., Ropert-Coudert, Y., Cavallo, C., Hays, G.C. & Chiaradia, A. 2018. Within-colony spatial segregation leads to foraging behaviour variation in a seabird. Marine Ecology Progress Series 606: 215-230.

Saraux, C., Chiaradia, A., Maho, Y.L. & Ropert-Coudert, Y. 2011. Everybody needs somebody: unequal parental effort in little penguins. Behavioral Ecology 22: 837-845.

Saraux, C., Robinson-Laverick, S., Le Maho, Y., Yan, R.-C. & Chiaradia, A. 2011. Plasticity in foraging strategies of inshore birds: how little penguins maintain body reserves while feeding the chicks. Ecology 92(10): 1909-1916.

Stahel, C., Gales, R. & Burrell, J. 1987. Little Penguin: Fairy penguins in Australia. NSW University Press.

Stevenson, C. & Woehler, E.J. 2007. Population decreases in Little Penguins Eudyptula minor in southeastern Tasmania, Australia,over the past 45 years. Marine Ornithology 35: 61-66.

Sutherland, D.R. & Dann, P. 2012. Improving the accuracy of population size estimates for burrow-nesting seabirds. Ibis 154(3): 488-498.

Sutherland, D.R. & Dann, P. 2014. Population trends in a substantial colony of Little Penguins: three independent measures over three decades. Biodiversity and Conservation 23: 241-250.

Tavares, E.S. & Baker, A.J. 2008. Single mitochondrial gene barcodes reliably identify sister-species in diverse clades of birds. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8(81): DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-81.

Tobias, J.A., Seddon, N., Spottiswoode, C.N., Pilgrim, J.D., Fishpool, L.D. & Collar, N.J. 2010. Quantitative criteria for species delimitation. Ibis 152(4): 724-746.

Voice, M., Harvey, N. & Walsh, K. 2006. Vulnerability to Climate Change of Australia’s Coastal Zone: Analysis of gaps in methods, data and system thresholds. Fisheries Report to the Australian Greenhouse Office, Canberra, Australia.

Williams, T.D. 1995. The Penguins Spheniscidae. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Wilson, K.-J. & Mattern, T. 2019. Little (blue) penguin / kororā, Eudyptula minor, in State of Penguins, New Zealand Penguin Initiative, Dunedin, New Zealand Available at: 10.36617/SoP.korora.2019-04.

Wu, L., Cai, W., Zhang, L., Nakamura, H., Timmermann, A., Joyce, T., McPhaden, M.J., Alexander, M., Qiu, B., Visbeck, M., Chang, P. & Giese, B. 2012. Enhanced warming over the global subtropical western boundary currents. Nature Climate Change 2(3): 161-166.

Zimmer, I., Ropert-Coudert, Y. Kato, Ancel, A. & Chiaradia, A. 2011. Does foraging performance change with age in female Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor)? PLoS ONE 6(1): e16098.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Penguin Specialist Group

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Eudyptula minor. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/little-penguin-eudyptula-minor on 24/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 24/02/2024.