LC
Little Penguin Eudyptula minor



References

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Cannell, B., Campbell, K., Fitzgerald, L., Lewis, J., Baran, I. & Stephens, N. 2016. Anthropogenic trauma is the most prevalent cause of mortality in Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) in Perth, Western Australia. Emu 116: 52-61.

Cannell, B.L., Chambers, L.E., Wooller, R.D. & Bradley, J.S. 2012. Poorer breeding by little penguins near Perth, Western Australia is correlated with above average sea surface temperatures and a stronger Leeuwin Current. Marine & Freshwater Research 63: 914-925.

Cannell, B.L., Pollock, K., Bradley, S., Wooller, R., Sherwin, W. & Sinclair, J. 2011. Augmenting mark-recapture with beach counts to estimate the abundance of little penguins on Penguin Island, Western Australia. Wildlife Research 38: 491-500.

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Carroll, G., Everett, J. D., Harcourt, R., Slip, D. & Jonsen, I. 2016. High sea surface temperatures driven by a strengthening current reduce foraging success by penguins. Scientific reports 6: 22236. DOI: 10.1038/srep22236.

Cavallo, C., Chiaradia, A., Deagle, B.E., McInnes, J.C., Sánchez, S., Hays, G. C. & Reina, R.D. 2018. Molecular analysis of predator scats reveals role of salps in temperate inshore food webs. Frontiers in Marine Science 5: 381.

Chiaradia, A. 2013. The smallest penguin faces big challenges. In: T. De Roy, M. Jones and J. Cornthwaite (eds), Penguins: Their World, their Ways, CSIRO Publishing, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Chiaradia, A., Forero, M. G. Hobson, K. A. & Cullen, J. M. 2010. Changes in diet and trophic position of a top predator ten years after a mass mortality of a key prey. ICES Journal of Marine Science 67: 1710-1720.

Chiaradia, A., McBride, J., Murray, T. & Dann, P. 2007a. Effect of fog on the arrival time in little penguins Eudyptula minor - a clue for visual orientation? Journal of Ornithology 148: 229 - 233.

Chiaradia, A., Ropert-Coudert, Y., Kato, A., Mattern, T. & Yorke, J. 2007b. Diving behaviour of Little Penguins from four colonies across their whole distribution range: bathymetry affecting diving effort and fledging success. Marine Biology 151 (4): 1535 - 1542.

Chiaradia, A.F. & Kerry, K.R. 1999. Nest attendance and breeding success in the little penguins Eudyptula minor at Phillip Island, Australia. Marine Ornithology 27: 13-20.

Chilvers, B.L. 2017. Comparison of New Zealand’s little blue penguins, Eudyptula minor diving behaviour. Polar Biology 40(10): 1965-1974.

Clark, J.A., Banks, J.C., Agnew, P., Gamboa, R., Mason, A. & Waas, J.R. 2015. Pairing patterns in mixed-clade colonies of little blue penguins. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 42: 33.

Collins, M., Cullen, J. M. & Dann, P. 1999. Seasonal and annual foraging movements of little penguins from Phillip Island, Victoria. Wildlife Research 26: 705 - 721.

Crawford, R. J. M., Ellenberg, U., Frere, E., Hagen, C., Baird, K., Brewin, P. Crofts, S., Glass, J., Mattern, T. & Pompert, J. 2017. Tangled and drowned: A global review of penguin bycatch in fisheries. Endangered Species Research 34: 373–396.

Cullen, J. M., Montague, T. L. & Hull, C. 1992. Food of little penguins Eudyptula minor in Victoria: comparison of three localities between 1985 and 1988. Emu 91(5): 318 - 341.

Daniel, T., Chiaradia, A., Logan, M. Quinn, G.P. & Reina, R.D. 2007. Synchronized group association in little penguins Eudyptula minor. Animal Behaviour 74: 1241-1248. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.01.029.

Dann, P. & Chambers, L. 2013. Ecological effects of climate change on little penguins Eudyptula minor and the potential economic impact on tourism. Climate Research 58(1 ): 67-79.

Dann, P. & Cullen, J.M. 1990. Survival, patterns of reproduction, and lifetime reproductive output in little blue penguins Eudyptula minor on Phillip Island, Victoria, Australia. In: . S. Davis and J. T. Darby (eds), Penguin Biology, pp. 63-84. Academic Press, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Dann, P. 1994. The abundance, breeding distribution and nest sites of blue penguins in Otago, New Zealand. Notornis 41(3): 157–166. Available at: http://notornis.osnz.org.nz/system/files/Notornis_41_3_157.pdf.

Dann, P. 2013. Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor). In: P.G. Borboroglu and P.D. Boersma (eds), Penguins Natural History and Conservation, pp. 305-324. UW Press, Seattle U.S.A.

Dann, P., Norman, F.I., Cullen, J.M., Neira, F.J. & Chiaradia, A. 2000. Mortality and breeding failure of little penguins Eudyptula minor in Victoria, 1995-6 following a widespread mortality of pilchard Sardinops sagax. Marine and Freshwater Research 51 (4): 355-362.

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Ekanayake, K. B., Sutherland, D. R., Dann, P., & Weston, M. A. 2015a. Out of sight but not out of mind: corvids prey extensively on eggs of burrow-nesting penguins. Wildlife Research 42: 509-517.

Ekanayake, K.B., Weston, M.A., Dann, P. & Sutherland, D.R. 2015b. Corvids congregate to selectively exploit eggs of a burrow-nesting seabird. Austral Ecology 41: 291-301.

Fraser, M.M. and Lalas, C. 2004. Seasonal variation in the diet of blue penguins Eudyptula minor at Oamaru, New Zealand. Notornis 51(1): 7-15.

Gales, R.P. & Pemberton, D. 1985. Breeding season and double brooding of the little penguin Eudyptula minor in New Zealand. Emu 85: 127-130.

Gales, R.P. & Pemberton, D. 1990. Seasonal and local variation in the diet of the little penguin, Eudyptula minor, in Tasmania. Australian Journal of Wildlife Research 17: 231-259.

Gill, B.J., Bell, B.D., Chambers, G.K., Medway, D.G., Palma, R.L., Scofield, R.P., Tennyson, A.J.D. & Worthy, T.H. 2010. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica. Ornithological Society of New Zealand Inc.

Goldsworthy, S.D., Giese, M., Gales, R.P., Brothers, N. & Hamill, J. 2000. Effects of the Iron Baron oil spill on little penguins (Eudyptula minor). II. Post-release survival of rehabilitated oiled birds. Wildlife Research 27(6): 573-582.

Grosser S., Rawlence, N.J., Anderson, C.N.K., Smith, I.W.G., Scofield, R.P. & Waters, J.M. 2016. Invader or resident? Ancient-DNA reveals rapid species turnover in New Zealand little penguins. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 283: 20152879.

Grosser, S., Burridge, C.P., Peucker, A.J. & Waters, J.M. 2015. Coalescent modelling suggest recent secondary-contact of cryptic penguin species. PLoS ONE 10: e0144966.

Grosser, S., Scofield, R.P. & Waters, J.M. 2017. Multivariate skeletal analyses support a taxonomic distinction between New Zealand and Australian Eudyptula penguins (Sphenisciformes: Spheniscidae). Emu 117: 276-283.

Hinder, S.L., Gravenor, M.B., Edwards, M., Ostle, C., Bodger, O.G., Lee, P.L.M., Walne, A.W. & Hays, G.C. 2013. Multi-decadal range changes vs. thermal adaptation for north east Atlantic oceanic copepods in the face of climate change. Global Change Biology 20 (1): 140–146.

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Johannesen, E., Houston, D. & Russel, J. 2003. Increased survival and breeding performance of double breeders in little penguins Eudyptula minor, New Zealand: evidence for individual bird quality? Journal of Avian Biology 34: 198-210.

Klomp, N.I. & Wooller, R.D. 1988. Diet of little penguin, Eudyptula minor, from Penguin Island, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 39: 633-639.

Klomp, N.I. & Wooller, R.D. 1991. Patterns of arrival and departure by breeding little penguins at Penguin Island, Western Australia. Emu 91(1): 32-35.

Lyle, J.M., Bell, J.D., Chuwen, B.M., Barrett, N., Tracey, S.R. & Buxton, C.D. 2014. Assessing the impacts of gill netting in Tasmania: Implications for by-catch and biodiversity. FRDC Project No 2010/016.

Macey, S., Meadows, M., Clark, J.A., Banks, J.C., Agnew, P. & Waas, J.R. 2015. The blue in little 'blue' penguins: quantifying colour by sex and clade. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 42: 33-34.

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Mattern, T. & Wilson, K.-J. 2018. New Zealand penguins – current knowledge and research priorities. Report to Birds New Zealand. https://www.birdsnz.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/1904-NZ-Penguin-Research-Priorities-Report-Mattern-Wilson.pdf.

Meyer, X., MacIntosh, A. J. J., Chiaradia, A., Kato, A., Mattern, T., Sueur, C. & Ropert-Coudert, Y. 2017. Shallow divers, deep waters and the rise of behavioural stochasticity. Marine Biology 164(6): 149.

Miyazaki, M. & Nakagawa, S. 2015. Geographical variation in male calls and the effect on female response in little penguins. Acta Ethologica 18: 227-234.

Nisbet, I.C.T. & Dann, P. 2009. Reproductive performance of little penguins in relation to year, age, pair-bond duration, breeding date and individual quality. Journal of Avian Biology 40: 296-308.

Pelletier, L., Chiaradia, A., Kato, A. & Ropert-Coudert, Y. 2014. Fine-scale spatial age segregation in the limited foraging area of an inshore seabird species, the little penguin. Oecologia 176: 399–408. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-014-3018-3.

Peucker, A.J., Dann, P. & Burridge, C.P. 2009. Range-wide phylogeography of the little penguin (Eudyptula minor): evidence of long-distance dispersal. Auk 126(2): 397-408.

Poupart, T.A., Waugh, S.M., Bost, C., Bost, C.-A., Dennis, T., Lane, R., Rogers, K., Sugishita, J., Taylor, G.A., Wilson, K.-J., Zhang, J. & Arnould, J.P.Y. 2017. Variability in the foraging range of Eudyptula minor across breeding sites in central New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 44(3): 225-244.

Preston, T. J., Ropert-Coudert, Y., Kato, A., Chiaradia, A., Kirkwood, R., Dann, P. & Reina, R.D. 2008. Foraging behaviour of little penguins Eudyptula minor in an artificially modified environment. Endangered Species Research 4: 95-103.

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Rodríguez, A., Chiaradia, A., Wasiak, P., Renwick, L. & Dann, P. 2016. Waddling on the dark side: Ambient light affects attendance behavior of Little Penguins. Journal of Biological Rhythms 31(2): DOI: 10.1177/0748730415626010.

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Salton, M., Saraux, C., Dann, P. & Chiaradia, A. 2015. Carry-over body mass effect from winter to breeding in a resident seabird, the little penguin. Royal Society Open Science 2(1): 140390.

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Saraux, C., Robinson-Laverick, S., Le Maho, Y., Yan, R.-C. & Chiaradia, A. 2011. Plasticity in foraging strategies of inshore birds: how little penguins maintain body reserves while feeding the chicks. Ecology 92(10): 1909-1916.

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Stevenson, C. & Woehler, E.J. 2007. Population decreases in Little Penguins Eudyptula minor in southeastern Tasmania, Australia,over the past 45 years. Marine Ornithology 35: 61-66.

Sutherland, D.R. & Dann, P. 2012. Improving the accuracy of population size estimates for burrow-nesting seabirds. Ibis 154(3): 488-498.

Sutherland, D.R. & Dann, P. 2014. Population trends in a substantial colony of Little Penguins: three independent measures over three decades. Biodiversity and Conservation 23: 241-250.

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Wilson, K.-J. & Mattern, T. 2019. Little (blue) penguin / koror?, Eudyptula minor, in State of Penguins, New Zealand Penguin Initiative, Dunedin, New Zealand Available at: 10.36617/SoP.korora.2019-04.

Wu, L., Cai, W., Zhang, L., Nakamura, H., Timmermann, A., Joyce, T., McPhaden, M.J., Alexander, M., Qiu, B., Visbeck, M., Chang, P. & Giese, B. 2012. Enhanced warming over the global subtropical western boundary currents. Nature Climate Change 2(3): 161-166.

Zimmer, I., Ropert-Coudert, Y. Kato, Ancel, A. & Chiaradia, A. 2011. Does foraging performance change with age in female Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor)? PLoS ONE 6(1): e16098.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Penguin Specialist Group

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Eudyptula minor. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2022.