Little Penguin Eudyptula minor


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Cannell, B., Campbell, K., Fitzgerald, L., Lewis, J., Baran, I. & Stephens, N. 2016. Anthropogenic trauma is the most prevalent cause of mortality in Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) in Perth, Western Australia. Emu 116: 52-61.

Cannell, B.L., Chambers, L.E., Wooller, R.D. & Bradley, J.S. 2012. Poorer breeding by little penguins near Perth, Western Australia is correlated with above average sea surface temperatures and a stronger Leeuwin Current. Marine & Freshwater Research 63: 914-925.

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Chiaradia, A., McBride, J., Murray, T. & Dann, P. 2007a. Effect of fog on the arrival time in little penguins Eudyptula minor - a clue for visual orientation? Journal of Ornithology 148: 229 - 233.

Chiaradia, A., Ropert-Coudert, Y., Kato, A., Mattern, T. & Yorke, J. 2007b. Diving behaviour of Little Penguins from four colonies across their whole distribution range: bathymetry affecting diving effort and fledging success. Marine Biology 151 (4): 1535 - 1542.

Chiaradia, A.F. & Kerry, K.R. 1999. Nest attendance and breeding success in the little penguins Eudyptula minor at Phillip Island, Australia. Marine Ornithology 27: 13-20.

Chilvers, B.L. 2017. Comparison of New Zealand’s little blue penguins, Eudyptula minor diving behaviour. Polar Biology 40(10): 1965-1974.

Clark, J.A., Banks, J.C., Agnew, P., Gamboa, R., Mason, A. & Waas, J.R. 2015. Pairing patterns in mixed-clade colonies of little blue penguins. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 42: 33.

Collins, M., Cullen, J. M. & Dann, P. 1999. Seasonal and annual foraging movements of little penguins from Phillip Island, Victoria. Wildlife Research 26: 705 - 721.

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Cullen, J. M., Montague, T. L. & Hull, C. 1992. Food of little penguins Eudyptula minor in Victoria: comparison of three localities between 1985 and 1988. Emu 91(5): 318 - 341.

Daniel, T., Chiaradia, A., Logan, M. Quinn, G.P. & Reina, R.D. 2007. Synchronized group association in little penguins Eudyptula minor. Animal Behaviour 74: 1241-1248. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.01.029.

Dann, P. & Chambers, L. 2013. Ecological effects of climate change on little penguins Eudyptula minor and the potential economic impact on tourism. Climate Research 58(1 ): 67-79.

Dann, P. & Cullen, J.M. 1990. Survival, patterns of reproduction, and lifetime reproductive output in little blue penguins Eudyptula minor on Phillip Island, Victoria, Australia. In: . S. Davis and J. T. Darby (eds), Penguin Biology, pp. 63-84. Academic Press, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

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Dann, P., Norman, F.I., Cullen, J.M., Neira, F.J. & Chiaradia, A. 2000. Mortality and breeding failure of little penguins Eudyptula minor in Victoria, 1995-6 following a widespread mortality of pilchard Sardinops sagax. Marine and Freshwater Research 51 (4): 355-362.

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Ekanayake, K. B., Sutherland, D. R., Dann, P., & Weston, M. A. 2015a. Out of sight but not out of mind: corvids prey extensively on eggs of burrow-nesting penguins. Wildlife Research 42: 509-517.

Ekanayake, K.B., Weston, M.A., Dann, P. & Sutherland, D.R. 2015b. Corvids congregate to selectively exploit eggs of a burrow-nesting seabird. Austral Ecology 41: 291-301.

Fraser, M.M. and Lalas, C. 2004. Seasonal variation in the diet of blue penguins Eudyptula minor at Oamaru, New Zealand. Notornis 51(1): 7-15.

Gales, R.P. & Pemberton, D. 1985. Breeding season and double brooding of the little penguin Eudyptula minor in New Zealand. Emu 85: 127-130.

Gales, R.P. & Pemberton, D. 1990. Seasonal and local variation in the diet of the little penguin, Eudyptula minor, in Tasmania. Australian Journal of Wildlife Research 17: 231-259.

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Goldsworthy, S.D., Giese, M., Gales, R.P., Brothers, N. & Hamill, J. 2000. Effects of the Iron Baron oil spill on little penguins (Eudyptula minor). II. Post-release survival of rehabilitated oiled birds. Wildlife Research 27(6): 573-582.

Grosser S., Rawlence, N.J., Anderson, C.N.K., Smith, I.W.G., Scofield, R.P. & Waters, J.M. 2016. Invader or resident? Ancient-DNA reveals rapid species turnover in New Zealand little penguins. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 283: 20152879.

Grosser, S., Burridge, C.P., Peucker, A.J. & Waters, J.M. 2015. Coalescent modelling suggest recent secondary-contact of cryptic penguin species. PLoS ONE 10: e0144966.

Grosser, S., Scofield, R.P. & Waters, J.M. 2017. Multivariate skeletal analyses support a taxonomic distinction between New Zealand and Australian Eudyptula penguins (Sphenisciformes: Spheniscidae). Emu 117: 276-283.

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Johannesen, E., Houston, D. & Russel, J. 2003. Increased survival and breeding performance of double breeders in little penguins Eudyptula minor, New Zealand: evidence for individual bird quality? Journal of Avian Biology 34: 198-210.

Klomp, N.I. & Wooller, R.D. 1988. Diet of little penguin, Eudyptula minor, from Penguin Island, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 39: 633-639.

Klomp, N.I. & Wooller, R.D. 1991. Patterns of arrival and departure by breeding little penguins at Penguin Island, Western Australia. Emu 91(1): 32-35.

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Macey, S., Meadows, M., Clark, J.A., Banks, J.C., Agnew, P. & Waas, J.R. 2015. The blue in little 'blue' penguins: quantifying colour by sex and clade. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 42: 33-34.

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Meyer, X., MacIntosh, A. J. J., Chiaradia, A., Kato, A., Mattern, T., Sueur, C. & Ropert-Coudert, Y. 2017. Shallow divers, deep waters and the rise of behavioural stochasticity. Marine Biology 164(6): 149.

Miyazaki, M. & Nakagawa, S. 2015. Geographical variation in male calls and the effect on female response in little penguins. Acta Ethologica 18: 227-234.

Nisbet, I.C.T. & Dann, P. 2009. Reproductive performance of little penguins in relation to year, age, pair-bond duration, breeding date and individual quality. Journal of Avian Biology 40: 296-308.

Pelletier, L., Chiaradia, A., Kato, A. & Ropert-Coudert, Y. 2014. Fine-scale spatial age segregation in the limited foraging area of an inshore seabird species, the little penguin. Oecologia 176: 399–408. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-014-3018-3.

Peucker, A.J., Dann, P. & Burridge, C.P. 2009. Range-wide phylogeography of the little penguin (Eudyptula minor): evidence of long-distance dispersal. Auk 126(2): 397-408.

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Preston, T. J., Ropert-Coudert, Y., Kato, A., Chiaradia, A., Kirkwood, R., Dann, P. & Reina, R.D. 2008. Foraging behaviour of little penguins Eudyptula minor in an artificially modified environment. Endangered Species Research 4: 95-103.

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Rodríguez, A., Chiaradia, A., Wasiak, P., Renwick, L. & Dann, P. 2016. Waddling on the dark side: Ambient light affects attendance behavior of Little Penguins. Journal of Biological Rhythms 31(2): DOI: 10.1177/0748730415626010.

Rodríguez, A., Holmberg, R., Dann, P. & Chiaradia, A. 2018. Penguin colony attendance under artificial lights for ecotourism. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological and Integrative Physiology 329(8-9): 457-464.

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Stevenson, C. & Woehler, E.J. 2007. Population decreases in Little Penguins Eudyptula minor in southeastern Tasmania, Australia,over the past 45 years. Marine Ornithology 35: 61-66.

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Zimmer, I., Ropert-Coudert, Y. Kato, Ancel, A. & Chiaradia, A. 2011. Does foraging performance change with age in female Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor)? PLoS ONE 6(1): e16098.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Penguin Specialist Group

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Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Eudyptula minor. Downloaded from on 24/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/02/2024.