Little Penguin Eudyptula minor


Agnew, P.; Lalas, C.; Wright, J.; Dawson, S. 2016. Annual variation in recruitment and age-specific survival of Little Penguins, Eudyptula minor. Emu 116 (1): 62-70. DOI:

Cannell, B., Campbell, K., Fitzgerald, L., Lewis, J., Baran, I. & Stephens, N. 2016. Anthropogenic trauma is the most prevalent cause of mortality in Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) in Perth, Western Australia.

Cannell, B.L., Chambers, L.E., Wooller, R.D. & Bradley, J.S. 2012. Poorer breeding by little penguins near Perth, Western Australia is correlated with above average sea surface temperatures and a stronger Leeuwin Current. Marine & Freshwater Research 63: 914-925.

Cannell, B.L., Pollock, K., Bradley, S., Wooller, R., Sherwin, W. & Sinclair, J. 2011. Augmenting mark-recapture with beach counts to estimate the abundance of little penguins on Penguin Island, Western Australia. Wildlife Research 38: 491-500.

Carlile, N., Priddel, D., O’Neill, L., Wheeler, R. and Walraven, E. 2015. A trial translocation of Little Penguin Eudyptula minor fledglings. Marine Ornithology 43: 223 - 229.

Carroll, G., Everett, J. D., Harcourt, R., Slip, D., & Jonsen, I. 2016. High sea surface temperatures driven by a strengthening current reduce foraging success by penguins. Scientific reports 6.

Chiaradia, A. 2013. The smallest penguin faces big challenges. Penguins: their world, their ways. T. d. Roy, CSIRO Publishing.

Chiaradia, A. F. and K. R. Kerry. 1999. Nest attendance and breeding success in the little penguins Eudyptula minor at Phillip Island, Australia. Marine Ornithology 27: 13-20.

Chiaradia, A., J. McBride, T. Murray and P. Dann. 2007. Effect of fog on the arrival time in little penguins Eudyptula minor - a clue for visual orientation? Journal of Ornithology 148: 229 - 233.

Chiaradia, A., M. G. Forero, K. A. Hobson and J. M. Cullen. 2010. Changes in diet and trophic position of a top predator ten years after a mass mortality of a key prey. ICES Journal of Marine Science 67: 1710-1720.

Chiaradia, A., Y. Ropert-Coudert, A. Kato, T. Mattern and J. Yorke. 2007. Diving behaviour of Little Penguins from four colonies across their whole distribution range: bathymetry affecting diving effort and fledging success. Marine Biology 151 (4): 1535 - 1542.

Crawford, R.; Ellenberg, U.; Frere, E.; Hagen, C.; Baird, K.; Brewin, P.; Crofts, S.; Glass, J.; Mattern, T.; Pompert, J. 2017. Tangled and drowned: A global review of penguin bycatch in fisheries. Endangered Species Research 34: 373–396.

Cullen, J. M., T. L. Montague and C. Hull. 1992. Food of little penguins Eudyptula minor in Victoria: comparison of three localities between 1985 and 1988. Emu 91(5): 318 - 341.

Daniel, T., A. Chiaradia, M. Logan, G. P. Quinn and R. D. Reina. 2007. Synchronized group association in little penguins Eudyptula minor. Animal Behaviour 74: 1241 - 1248. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.01.029.

Dann, P. 1994. The abundance, breeding distribution and nest sites of blue penguins in Otago, New Zealand. Notornis 41(3): 157–166.

Dann, P. 2013. Little Penguin (Eudyptyla minor). In Penguins Natural History and Conservation Eds. P. G. Borboroglu and P. D. Boersma: 305-324.

Fraser, M. M. and C. Lalas. 2004. Seasonal variation in the diet of blue penguins Eudyptula minor at Oamaru, New Zealand. Notornis 51(1): 7 - 15.

Gales, R. P. and D. Pemberton. 1990. Breeding season and double brooding of the little penguin Eudyptula minor in New Zealand. Australian Journal of Wildlife Research 17: 231 - 259.

Hinder, S. L., M. B. Gravenor, M. Edwards, C. Ostle, O. G. Bodger, P. L. M. Lee, A. W. Walne and G. C. Hays. 2013. Multi-decadal range changes vs. thermal adaptation for north east Atlantic oceanic copepods in the face of climate change. Global Change Biology 20 (1): 140–146.

Jeremy M. Lyle, Justin D. Bell, Ben M. Chuwen, Neville Barrett, Sean R. Tracey, Colin D. Buxton. 2014. Assessing the impacts of gill netting in Tasmania: Implications for by-catch and biodiversity. FRDC .

Johannesen, E., D. Houston and J. Russel. 2003. Increased survival and breeding performance of double breeders in little penguins Eudyptula minor, New Zealand: evidence for individual bird quality? Journal of Avian Biology 34: 198 - 210.

Klomp, N. I. and R. D. Wooller. 1988. Diet of little penguin, Eudyptula minor, from Penguin Island, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 39: 633 - 639.

Klomp, N. I. and R. D. Wooller. 1991. Patterns of arrival and departure by breeding little penguins at Penguin Island, Western Australia. Emu 91(1): 32 - 35.

Nisbet, I. C. T. and P. Dann. 2009. Reproductive performance of little penguins in relation to year, age, pair-bond duration, breeding date and individual quality. Journal of Avian Biology 40: 296 - 308.

Pelletier, L., A. Chiaradia, A. Kato and Y. Ropert-Coudert. 2014. Fine-scale spatial age segregation in the limited foraging area of an inshore seabird species, the little penguin. Oecologia: 1-10. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-014-3018-3.

Preston, T. J., A. Chiaradia, S. A. Caarels and R. D. Reina. 2010. Fine scale biologging of an inshore marine animal. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 390(2): 196-202.

Preston, T. J., Y. Ropert-Coudert, A. Kato, A. Chiaradia, R. Kirkwood, P. Dann and R. D. Reina. 2008. Foraging behaviour of little penguins Eudyptula minor in an artificially modified environment. Endangered Species Research 4: 95 - 103.

Rodríguez, A., A. Chiaradia, P. Wasiak, L. Renwick and P. Dann. 2016. Waddling on the Dark Side: Ambient Light Affects Attendance Behavior of Little Penguins. Journal of Biological Rhythms 31(2): DOI: 10.1177/0748730415626010.

Salton, M., C. Saraux, P. Dann and A. Chiaradia. 2015. Carry-over body mass effect from winter to breeding in a resident seabird, the little penguin. Royal Society Open Science 2(1): 140390.

Saraux, C., A. Chiaradia, Y. L. Maho and Y. Ropert-Coudert. 2011. Everybody needs somebody: unequal parental effort in little penguins. Behavioral Ecology 22: 837-845.

Saraux, C., S. Robinson-Laverick, Y. Le Maho, R.-C. Yan and A. Chiaradia. 2011. Plasticity in foraging strategies of inshore birds: how little penguins maintain body reserves while feeding the chicks. Ecology 92(10): 1909-1916.

Stahel, C., Gales, R. and Burrell, J. 1987. Little penguin: Fairy penguins in Australia. Nswu Press.

Stevenson, C. and E. J. Woehler. 2007. Population decreases in Little Penguins Eudyptula minor in southeastern Tasmania, Australia,over the past 45 years. Marine Ornithology 35: 61-66.

Sutherland, D. R. and P. Dann. 2012. Improving the accuracy of population size estimates for burrow-nesting seabirds. Ibis 154(3): 488-498.

Voice, M., N. Harvey and K. Walsh. 2006. Vulnerability to Climate Change of Australia’s Coastal Zone: Analysis of gaps in methods, data and system thresholds. Fisheries Report to the Australian Greenhouse Office, Canberra, Australia.

Wu, L., W. Cai, L. Zhang, H. Nakamura, A. Timmermann, T. Joyce, M. J. McPhaden, M. Alexander, B. Qiu, M. Visbeck, P. Chang and B. Giese. 2012. Enhanced warming over the global subtropical western boundary currents. Nature Climate Change 2(3): 161-166.

Zimmer, I., Y. Ropert-Coudert, A. Kato, A. Ancel and A. Chiaradia. 2011. Does Foraging Performance Change with Age in Female Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor)? PLoS ONE 6(1): e16098.

Further resources

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos, videos and sounds of this species in the Internet Bird Collection.

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Eudyptula minor. Downloaded from on 17/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 17/11/2019.