Little Inca-finch Incaspiza watkinsi


Justification of Red List Category
This species is considered Near Threatened as it has a very small range and is undergoing population declines owing to habitat loss. However, it remains common in existing areas of suitable habitat, and the range is not yet severely fragmented or restricted to few locations. For these reasons, the species is classified as Near Threatened.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. (1996).

Trend justification
Slow to moderate declines are suspected, owing to on-going habitat degradation and conversion within the range.

Distribution and population

Incaspiza watkinsi has a very restricted range in the central río Marañón drainage (north Cajamarca and adjacent Amazonas), west Peru (Ridgely and Tudor 1989). It is relatively common within suitable habitat.


This species occurs in undisturbed arid lowland scrub at 350-900 m (Schulenberg et al. 2007) and, despite tolerating some habitat degradation, has a particular association with terrestrial bromeliads (Ridgely and Tudor 1989, Parker et al. 1996, R. Webster and R. A. Rowlett in litt. 1998, J. Hornbuckle in litt. 1999).


The Marañón drainage has been cultivated for many years and its native habitats have progressively deteriorated (Dinerstein et al. 1995). The spread of oil palm plantations and cattle ranching are serious threats within its limited range, and oil extraction is a potential future problem (Dinerstein et al. 1995).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
Conservation Actions Proposed
Make repeated surveys of the range to monitor population trends and identify key threats. Campaign for the protection of remaining native arid scrub habitats in the Marañón drainage.


Text account compilers
O'Brien, A., Gilroy, J., Capper, D., Sharpe, C.J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Incaspiza watkinsi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/10/2021.