Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Near Threatened A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd
2016 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd
2015 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Near Threatened A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 14,700,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 12,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.3 - - -

Population justification: The global population (excluding c.20,000 individuals in Kazakhstan) was previously estimated at a minimum of c. 240,000 individuals (C. Martínez in litt. 1999). The European population alone was recently estimated to be 122,000-240,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The eastern population is likely to be of a similar size to the Iberian population (J. Kamp in litt. 2015). The population is therefore placed in the band 100,000-499,999 individuals.

Trend justification: The European population is estimated to be declining by 30-49% in three generations (30.9 years) (BirdLife International 2015). There is little evidence to suggest that the population in Kazakhstan has declined, as surveys in central and northern Kazakhstan show that densities did not decrease between 2008-2009 and 2015 (J. Kamp in litt. 2015). Wintering flocks in Azerbaijan are not thought to have declined (J. Kamp in litt. 2015). Europe holds around 40% of the global breeding range, but may hold as much as 80-90% of the global population. The Central Asian population may be exposed to the same threats as the western European population, e.g. agricultural change and power lines (Kamp et al. 2011, Voronova et al. 2012). Thus, the overall population is estimated to be in moderately rapid decline.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extinct Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extinct Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Belarus N Extinct
Belgium V Extant
Bulgaria N Extinct Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant
Cyprus V Extant
Czechia N Extinct Yes
Denmark V Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extinct Yes
Greece N Extinct Yes
Hungary N Extinct Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan V Extant
Jordan U Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes Yes
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya U Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Malta V Extant
Moldova N Extinct Yes
Montenegro N Extinct Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories V Extant Yes
Poland N Extinct Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania U Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extinct Yes
Slovakia N Extinct Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan U Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Algeria Marais de la Macta
Armenia Sardarapat
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Korchai area
Azerbaijan Lake Hajigabul
Azerbaijan Mugan steppe
Azerbaijan Sheki upland
Azerbaijan Shorgel lakes/Shirvan reserve
France Crau
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
France Gorges du Gardon
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Plaine calcaire du sud Vendée
France Plaine de Niort (nord-ouest)
France Plaine de Niort (sud-est)
France Plaine de Saint-Jean-de-Sauves
France Plaine de Villefagnan
France Plaines de Mirebeau et de Neuville-du-Poitou
France Plaines de Saint-Jouin de Marne et d'Assais-les-Jumeaux
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
France Plateau de Valensole
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Vallées du Lis et de la Pique
Georgia Alazani Valley
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Italy Altopiano di Abbasanta
Italy Altopiano di Campeda
Italy Campo d'Ozieri
Italy Central Campidano
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Amankaragay Forest
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Ashchyozek River
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Middle reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Mugodzhary
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Sagyz
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Kazakhstan Teniz-Karakamys Lakes
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Uil River and Taysoygan Sands
Kazakhstan Urda Sands
Kazakhstan Western edge of the Karakoyin and Zhetikonyr Sands
Kazakhstan Zharsor-Urkash Salt Lakes
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Portugal Albufeira do Caia
Portugal Alter do Chão
Portugal Cabrela
Portugal Campo Maior
Portugal Castro Marim
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Côa valley
Portugal Cuba
Portugal Évora plains
Portugal Monforte plains
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos
Portugal Reguengos de Monsaraz
Portugal River Guadiana
Portugal Tejo estuary
Portugal Vila Fernando
Russia (Central Asian) Arkaim
Russia (Central Asian) Birsuat
Russia (Central Asian) Interfluve of the rivers Small and Big Karatanka
Russia (Central Asian) Kurumbel'skaya steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Mouth of the Uy river
Russia (Central Asian) Sources of the Bolshaya Karaganka and Syntasty rivers
Russia (Central Asian) The top part of pools of the rivers Big Karaganka and the rivers Syntasty
Russia (Central Asian) Vicinities of settlement Kalininsky
Russia (European) Algaiski
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Russia (European) Budary lakes
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Bulukhta area
Russia (European) Chechen' Island and east seaside of Agrakhan peninsula
Russia (European) Chonta
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Drofiny area
Russia (European) Erdniyevskaya area
Russia (European) Kalausskiye floods
Russia (European) Karakol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes
Russia (European) Kholmanskiye feathergrass steppes
Russia (European) Krasnoarmeiskiye waste lands
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Russia (European) Lake El'ton
Russia (European) Lower reaches of Sulak river
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Russia (European) Manoilinskaya steppe
Russia (European) Manych salt lakes
Russia (European) Migulinskiye sands
Russia (European) Nizhnekumskiye floods
Russia (European) Orenburgski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Outskirts of Arbali village
Russia (European) Prikumskiye steppes
Russia (European) Priyeruslanskiye sands
Russia (European) Rovno area
Russia (European) Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills
Russia (European) Sources of Akshibai river
Russia (European) Sulakskaya lagoon
Russia (European) Talginskaya Valley
Russia (European) Tazhinski liman
Russia (European) Temirgoiskiye lakes
Russia (European) Tsimlyanskiye sands
Russia (European) Turali lakes
Russia (European) Turalinskaya lagoon
Russia (European) Tyuleni island
Russia (European) Valley of Safarovka river
Russia (European) Yangiyurtovski reserve and Bakas fen
Russia (European) Zhestyanka
Russia (European) Zhuravlinaya
Russia (European) Zolotarevskaya area
Spain Alange
Spain Albacete - Barrax - La Roda
Spain Alcañiz salt lakes
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Alcarria de Alcalá steppes
Spain Alto Guadiato
Spain Altos de Barahona high moor
Spain Azuaga-Llerena-Peraleda de Zaucejo
Spain Azután reservoir
Spain Ballobar-Candasnos
Spain Bardenas Reales
Spain Barranco Hondo
Spain Belchite-Mediana
Spain Bienvenida-Usagre-Ribera del Fresno
Spain Botoa-Villar del Rey
Spain Brozas-Membrío
Spain Campiña de Benalup - Casas Viejas, Medina Sidonia y Vejer de la Frontera
Spain Campiña de Conil y Vejer de la Frontera
Spain Campiña de Jerez - Lebrija y Marisma de Trebujena
Spain Campiñas de Santaella - Écija
Spain Campo Arañuelo-Valdecañas reservoir
Spain Campo de Calatrava
Spain Campo de Montiel
Spain Campo Visiedo
Spain Carmona countryside
Spain Carrión-Frómista
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges
Spain Cerrato high moor
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Condado-Campiña
Spain Córdoba countryside
Spain Coria mountain ranges
Spain Don Benito-Guareña
Spain Ecija-Osuna plain
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias
Spain El Temple - Lomas de Padul
Spain Fuente de Cantos-Montemolín
Spain Fuente de Piedra, Gosque and Campillos lakes
Spain Fuentelapeña-Jambrina
Spain Gallocanta lake
Spain Guadalentín saltmarshes
Spain Hoya de Baza
Spain Hoya de Guadix
Spain Jaén countryside
Spain Jerez de los Caballeros dehesas
Spain La Limia
Spain La Manchuela Conquense
Spain La Serena
Spain Lácara-Morante
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Llanos de Plasencia
Spain Llanos del Marquesado - Valle del Zalabí
Spain Llanura y Muelas de Valdejalón - Muel
Spain Los Monegros (South)
Spain Malpartida de Cáceres-Arroyo de la Luz
Spain Monegrillo-Pina steppe area-Pina
Spain Montánchez mountain range-Cornalvo reservoir
Spain Noreste de Jaén
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera
Spain Oropesa plains
Spain Pedro Muñoz-Manjavacas endorreic lagoons
Spain Pedroches Occidentales
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Pétrola-Almansa-Yecla
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Puebla de Don Fadrique-Las Cañadas
Spain Puerto de Mejoral-Almorchón-Cabeza del Buey
Spain Puerto Peña reservoir-Valdecaballeros
Spain Redbeeds and copses of Aranjuez
Spain Rivers Cabriel and Júcar canyons
Spain San Clemente-Villarrobledo
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Siruela-Agudo
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes
Spain Talamanca-Camarma
Spain Tarancón-Ocaña-Corral de Almaguer
Spain Tembleque-La Guardia plains
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Tordesillas-Mota del Marqués
Spain Torrejón de Velasco - Secanos de Valdemoro
Spain Torrijos
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Valdehornillos-Santa Amalia
Spain Vegas del Alagón
Spain Villafáfila
Spain Villanueva del Fresno
Spain West Andévalo
Turkey Tuz Lake
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Turkmenistan Tallymerjen
Ukraine Bagerove
Uzbekistan Achinskoe Lake
Uzbekistan Amudarya floodlands near Termez

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland major non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland major breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Grassland Temperate major non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) No decline Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Tetrax tetrax. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/01/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/01/2020.