NT
Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Near Threatened A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd
2016 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd
2015 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Near Threatened A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 14,700,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 12,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.3 - - -

Population justification: The global population (excluding c.20,000 individuals in Kazakhstan) was previously estimated at a minimum of c. 240,000 individuals (C. Martínez in litt. 1999). The European population alone was recently estimated to be 122,000-240,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The eastern population is likely to be of a similar size to the Iberian population (J. Kamp in litt. 2015). The population is therefore placed in the band 100,000-499,999 individuals.

Trend justification: The European population is estimated to be declining by 30-49% in three generations (30.9 years) (BirdLife International 2015). There is little evidence to suggest that the population in Kazakhstan has declined, as surveys in central and northern Kazakhstan show that densities did not decrease between 2008-2009 and 2015 (J. Kamp in litt. 2015). Wintering flocks in Azerbaijan are not thought to have declined (J. Kamp in litt. 2015). Europe holds around 40% of the global breeding range, but may hold as much as 80-90% of the global population. The Central Asian population may be exposed to the same threats as the western European population, e.g. agricultural change and power lines (Kamp et al. 2011, Voronova et al. 2012). Thus, the overall population is estimated to be in moderately rapid decline.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extinct Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extinct Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Belarus N Extinct
Belgium V Extant
Bulgaria N Extinct Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant
Cyprus V Extant
Czechia N Extinct Yes
Denmark V Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extinct Yes
Greece N Extinct Yes
Hungary N Extinct Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan V Extant
Jordan U Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes Yes
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya U Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Malta V Extant
Moldova N Extinct Yes
Montenegro N Extinct Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories V Extant Yes
Poland N Extinct Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania U Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extinct Yes
Slovakia N Extinct Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan U Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
North Macedonia River Bregalnica
Azerbaijan Shorgel lakes/Shirvan reserve
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Mount Ilandag
Azerbaijan Korchai area
Azerbaijan Mugan steppe
Azerbaijan Sheki upland
Portugal Évora plains
Portugal Alter do Chão
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos
Portugal Monforte plains
Portugal Vila Fernando
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Castro Marim
Portugal South-west coast of Portugal
Portugal Tejo estuary
Portugal Campo Maior
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Evros delta
Russia (European) Mouth of Samur river
Russia (European) Adzhi Lake
Russia (European) Valley of Safarovka river
Russia (European) Levo-Dobrinskaya valley
Russia (European) Karaichevski forest
Russia (European) Lake El'ton
Russia (European) Priyeruslanskiye sands
Russia (European) Kulaksay lowland
Russia (European) Watershed of Bityug and Tsna rivers
Russia (European) Western Ilmen area
Russia (European) Bereznyagovski forest
Russia (European) Uttinskaya area
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Bogdinsko-Baskunchakski
Russia (European) Algaiski
Russia (European) Rovno area
Russia (European) Zhestyanka
Russia (European) Vicinity of Borisoglebovka (Saratovski [Semenovski] Reserve)
Russia (European) Orenburgski Nature Reserve
Spain La Janda
Spain Carmona countryside
Spain Pedroches Occidentales
Spain Alhamilla mountain range-Campo de Níjar plain
Spain Hoya de Guadix
Spain Hoya de Baza
Spain Puebla de Don Fadrique-Las Cañadas
Spain Guadalentín saltmarshes
Spain Quipar reservoir, Molino mountain range and Cagitán plains
Spain Blancas-Torralba de los Sisones
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Bardenas Reales
Spain La Serena
Spain Azuaga-Llerena-Peraleda de Zaucejo
Spain Bienvenida-Usagre-Ribera del Fresno
Spain Fuente de Cantos-Montemolín
Spain Villanueva del Fresno
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera
Spain Botoa-Villar del Rey
Spain Malpartida de Cáceres-Arroyo de la Luz
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Oropesa plains
Spain Alcázar de San Juan-Quero endorreic lagoons
Spain Tembleque-La Guardia plains
Spain Campo de Montiel
Spain Pétrola-Almansa-Yecla
Spain Embid-Molina high moors
Spain Talamanca-Camarma
Spain Cerrato high moor
Spain Tordesillas-Mota del Marqués
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain Altos de Barahona high moor
Spain Carrión-Frómista
Spain Redbeeds and copses of Aranjuez
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Alcarria de Alcalá steppes
Spain River Ebro dam
Spain Villafáfila
Spain Campo de Argañán
Spain Mountain range and saltpans at Cabo de Gata
Spain Jaén countryside
Spain Ecija-Osuna plain
Spain Córdoba countryside
Spain Condado-Campiña
Spain West Andévalo
Spain Monegrillo-Pina steppe area-Pina
Spain Los Monegros (South)
Spain Ballobar-Candasnos
Spain Belchite-Mediana
Spain Alcañiz salt lakes
Spain Gallocanta lake
Spain Campo Visiedo
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Brozas-Membrío
Spain Montánchez mountain range-Cornalvo reservoir
Spain Don Benito-Guareña
Spain San Clemente-Villarrobledo
Spain Tarancón-Ocaña-Corral de Almaguer
Spain Torrijos
Spain Campo de Calatrava
Spain Fuente de Piedra, Gosque and Campillos lakes
Spain La Limia
Spain Campo de San Gregorio
Spain Villalba de los Barros
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Bagerove
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Crau
France Vallée de l'Aube, de la Superbe et Marigny
France Brenne centrale
France Hautes Corbières
France Basses Corbières
France Gorges de la Vis et cirque de Navacelles
France Gorges du Gardon
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Vallées du Lis et de la Pique
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Chaîne des Alpilles
France Plateau de Valensole
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
France Préalpes de Grasse
France Plaine de Niort (sud-est)
France Plaine de Niort (nord-ouest)
France Plaines de Saint-Jouin de Marne et d'Assais-les-Jumeaux
France Plateau de Bellefonds
France Plaines de Mirebeau et de Neuville-du-Poitou
France Plaine de Saint-Jean-de-Sauves
France Plaine de Villefagnan
France Plaine calcaire du sud Vendée
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Vallée du Fouzon
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
Italy Altopiano di Abbasanta
Italy Central Campidano
Italy Altopiano di Campeda
Italy Campo d'Ozieri
Italy Murge
Italy Gargano promontory
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Turkey Tuz Lake
Algeria Marais de la Macta
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Syria Golan Heights
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Russia (European) Stepnovski saltmarshes
Russia (European) Drofiny area
Russia (European) Bulukhta area
Russia (European) Tazhinski liman
Russia (European) Turali lakes
Russia (European) Sulakskaya lagoon
Russia (European) Turalinskaya lagoon
Russia (European) Temirgoiskiye lakes
Russia (European) Erdniyevskaya area
Russia (European) Manoilinskaya steppe
Russia (European) Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Georgia Alazani Valley
Georgia Lower Kura Valley
Russia (European) Talginskaya Valley
Russia (European) Migulinskiye sands
Russia (European) Tsimlyanskiye sands
Russia (Central Asian) Brook Shiryaev Log
Russia (Central Asian) Interfluve of the rivers Small and Big Karatanka
Russia (Central Asian) Arkaim
Russia (Central Asian) Vicinities of settlement Kalininsky
Russia (Central Asian) Mountain of the Checka
Russia (Central Asian) The top part of pools of the rivers Big Karaganka and the rivers Syntasty
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Lake Hajigabul
Russia (Central Asian) Sources of the Bolshaya Karaganka and Syntasty rivers
Russia (European) Fields near village Voskresenk
Russia (European) Zolotarevskaya area
Portugal Côa valley
Portugal Cuba
Portugal Cabrela
Portugal Albufeira do Caia
Portugal Reguengos de Monsaraz
Armenia Sardarapat
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale
France Petite Beauce
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
Kazakhstan Zharsor-Urkash Salt Lakes
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Mouth of the Uy river
Russia (Central Asian) Kurumbel'skaya steppe
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Russia (Central Asian) Birsuat
Russia (European) Vicinity of Eruslan village
Russia (Central Asian) Cheka mountain
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e-Moghan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Mooteh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Israel Hula valley
Israel Zevulun valley
Israel Hefer valley
Israel Judean foothills
Israel Western Negev
Palestinian Authority Territories Jericho
Syria Ras al-Ayn
Syria Wadi al-Azib
Syria Jabal al-Bishri
Syria Tadmur desert and mountains
Uzbekistan Achinskoe Lake
Uzbekistan Amudarya floodlands near Termez
Kazakhstan Mugodzhary
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Ashchyozek River
Kazakhstan Urda Sands
Turkmenistan Tallymerjen
Portugal River Guadiana
Russia (European) Archedinskiye sands
Kazakhstan Shaglyteniz Lake and marshes
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Western edge of the Karakoyin and Zhetikonyr Sands
Kazakhstan Middle reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake
Russia (European) Budary lakes
Russia (European) Kissyk area
Kazakhstan Teniz-Karakamys Lakes
Russia (European) Krasnoarmeiskiye waste lands
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes
Russia (European) Manych salt lakes
Russia (European) Nizhnekumskiye floods
Russia (European) Valley of Bashlychai river
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Russia (European) Chonta
Russia (European) Zhuravlinaya
Kazakhstan Amankaragay Forest
Russia (European) Lower reaches of Sulak river
Russia (European) Yangiyurtovski reserve and Bakas fen
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Turkmenistan Tejen
Russia (European) Karakol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Valley of Bashlychai river
Russia (European) Imeretinskaya lowland
Russia (European) Irgaklinski forest
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Russia (European) Prikumskiye steppes
Russia (European) Kalausskiye floods
Russia (European) Outskirts of Arbali village
Turkmenistan Garachop
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Turkey Bulanık and Malazgirt Plains
Kazakhstan Uil River and Taysoygan Sands
Kazakhstan Sagyz
Russia (European) Sources of Alimbet river and Aktykyl ridge
Russia (European) Floodplain of Ilek river near Pokrovka
Russia (European) Tyuleni island
Russia (European) Chechen' Island and east seaside of Agrakhan peninsula
Russia (European) Sources of Akshibai river
Russia (European) Kundryuchenskiye sands
Russia (European) Steppes in the vicinity of Kanavka village
Russia (European) Snake hills
Russia (European) Kholmanskiye feathergrass steppes
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Russia (Central Asian) Holes of the Karasuk river downstream
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau
Spain Fuentelapeña-Jambrina
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias
Spain Rivers Cabriel and Júcar canyons
Spain Pedro Muñoz-Manjavacas endorreic lagoons
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes
Spain Azután reservoir
Spain Alto Guadiato
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges
Spain Jerez de los Caballeros dehesas
Spain Alange
Spain Puerto de Mejoral-Almorchón-Cabeza del Buey
Spain Siruela-Agudo
Spain Puerto Peña reservoir-Valdecaballeros
Spain Valdehornillos-Santa Amalia
Spain Lácara-Morante
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Coria mountain ranges
Spain Campo Arañuelo-Valdecañas reservoir
Spain El Temple - Lomas de Padul
Spain Llanos de Plasencia
Spain Llanura y Muelas de Valdejalón - Muel
Spain Noreste de Jaén
Spain Llanos del Marquesado - Valle del Zalabí
Spain Campiñas de Santaella - Écija
Spain Barranco Hondo
Spain Campiña de Jerez - Lebrija y Marisma de Trebujena
Spain Campiña de Benalup - Casas Viejas, Medina Sidonia y Vejer de la Frontera
Spain Campiña de Conil y Vejer de la Frontera
Spain Albacete - Barrax - La Roda
Spain La Manchuela Conquense
Spain Vegas del Alagón
Portugal São Pedro Sólis
Portugal São Vicente
Portugal Torre da Bolsa
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Spain Torrejón de Velasco - Secanos de Valdemoro
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Uzbekistan Arnasay Lake System
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9
Kazakhstan Arystandy
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Shcherbakty Lakes
Kazakhstan Semey Ormany (Semipalatinsk Forest)
Kazakhstan Eastern Kazakhstan uplands
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains
Kazakhstan Arkaly Mountains
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Emba River
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly
Turkmenistan Uzboy

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland major non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland major breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Grassland Temperate major non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) No decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Tetrax tetrax. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/05/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/05/2020.