LC
Little Auk Alle alle



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 8,990,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 20,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 1996
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.16,000,000-36,000,000 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996). However the European population alone was recently estimated at 9,200,000-82,000,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015), therefore, the global population is likely to be considerably larger than the current estimate.

Trend justification: The population trend is decreasing in North America (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Austria V Extant
Bahamas N Extant
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cuba N Extant
Czechia V Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant
Italy V Extant
Latvia V Extant
Malta V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Ukraine V Extant
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greenland (to Denmark) Assissut (Braendvinsskaerene) near Kronprinsens Ejland
Greenland (to Denmark) Kitsissunnguit (Grønne Ejland)
Greenland (to Denmark) Kap Brewster and Volquart Boon's coast
Greenland (to Denmark) Liverpool Land coast and mouth of Scoresby Sund
United Kingdom Scapa Flow
United Kingdom Sounds around Wyre
Greenland (to Denmark) Coastline from Robertson fjord to Foulke Fjord
Greenland (to Denmark) Northumberland island
Greenland (to Denmark) Coast between Appaliarsulissuaq and Kap Atholl
Denmark Skagerrak-Southwest Norwegian trench
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) South Spitsbergen National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Ingeborgfjellet
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Jan Mayen island
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Hopen island
Russia (European) Arkhangelskaya Bay
France Cap Gris-nez
Canada Grates Point
Canada Lancaster Sound Polynya
Canada Brier Island and Offshore Waters
Greenland (to Denmark) Kap Brewster and Volquart Boon's coast - Marine
Greenland (to Denmark) Saunders island / Coast between Appaliarsulissuaq and Kap Atholl - Marine
Greenland (to Denmark) Coastline from Robertson fjord to Foulke Fjord - Marine
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Kvalhovden & Sjukovskifjella
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Alkhornet
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordre Isfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Southeast Svalbard Nature Reserve
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Northwest Spitsbergen National Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Alle alle. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/11/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/11/2020.