CR
Liben Lark Heteromirafra archeri



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Spottiswoode, C.N., Olsson, U., Mills, M.S., Cohen, C., Francis, J.E., Toye, N., Hoddinott, D., Dagne, A., Wood, C., Donald, P.F., Collar, N.J. and Alstr?

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A3bc; C1+2a(i) A3bc; B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i); D A3bc; B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Critically Endangered A3bc; C1+2a(i)
2015 Critically Endangered A3bc+4bc; C1+2a(i)
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 6,000 good
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 30 good
Number of locations 2 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50-249 good estimated 2015
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 80-99 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.8 - - -

Population justification: The total population is now likely to number fewer than 250 individuals, with fewer than 50 individuals in each of the two subpopulations.

Trend justification: Both the populations on the Liben Plain and at Jijiga are thought to be declining. On the Liben Plain the population is suspected to be declining because the species is restricted to grassland in the calcareous plateau east and south of Negele (L. Borghesio in litt. 2005) which decreased in area by about 30% between 1973 and 2002, and is being rapidly encroached by shrubs, agriculture and homesteads. The remaining area is being rapidly degraded due to overgrazing by livestock. Over 15% of remaining habitat on the Liben plain was lost in a single year, suggesting that the rate of decline may now be higher (P. F. Donald in litt. 2012). Habitat loss is expected to take place at a similar rate at Jijiga given that cultivation in the area is apparently ongoing (Spottiswoode et al. 2013). The total population can therefore be projected to undergo a reduction of greater than 80% over the period of three generations and greater than 25% in one generation.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major resident
Savanna Dry major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Altitude 1400 - 1600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Nomadic grazing Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Acacia drepanolobium Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Supression in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Heteromirafra archeri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2017.