Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2016 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2013 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2012 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2008 Vulnerable A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 7,060,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 21,900,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 16000-27000 good estimated 2008
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.4 - - -

Population justification: The most recent total population estimate is 24,000-40,000 individuals, which compares with previous published global estimates of 25,000 to 30,000 individuals (Lorentsen et al. 1999) and 22,000 to 27,000 (Delany and Scott 2006). This includes 10,000-21,000 individuals in autumn in its Western Palearctic range (Jones et al. 2008, Fox et al. 2010) and 14,000-19,000 individuals from the East Asian Flyway (Jia et al. 2016, C. Lei per A. Fox in litt. 2016). In 1988-1993, 64,000 individuals were recorded (Jia et al. 2016); in 1997, the number declined to 20,000 individuals (Li and Mundkur 2004), and to less than 17,000 individuals (Morozov and Syroechkovski 2005): 16,937 birds were counted in the Lower Yangtze Valley in 2004 (Barter et al. 2004), and 16,600 in East Dongting Lake Nature Reserve in 2004 (Barter 2005). The Russian populations have declined from a former estimate of 30,000-50,000 individuals (Morozov 1995). The Fennoscandian population has declined from more than 10,000 birds in the early 20th century.

Trend justification: This species's population is suspected to have decreased rapidly, owing to high levels of hunting on the staging and wintering grounds and habitat deterioration, largely as a result of land cultivation. The decrease in numbers has been accompanied by fragmentation of the breeding range and is continuing to affect all populations. Modelling indicates that 28% of the habitat for this species could be lost by 2070 (Zöckler and Lysenko 2000).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant Yes
Albania V Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant
Austria V Extant Yes Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Czechia V Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant Yes Yes
Egypt V Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France V Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
India V Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel V Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan V Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Myanmar V Extant Yes
Netherlands R Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan V Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes Yes
Spain V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Latvia Dviete flood-plain
Latvia Babite lake
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Lake Kanieris
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Durbe lake meadows
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Pyasachnik Reservoir
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Belgium Polderkomplex
Sweden Tavvavouma
Sweden Lake Tjålme – Valley of Lais
Sweden Lake Östen
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Lake Hjälstaviken
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Evros delta
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Alajoki
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Hungary Hódmezővásárhely Pusztas
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Russia (European) Mouth of Samur river
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kotorosl' and Ust'e rivers
Russia (European) Varfolomeyevskiye saltmarshes
Russia (European) Koporski Bay
Russia (European) Sources of the River Luga
Russia (European) Kulaksay lowland
Russia (European) Middle reaches of Bolshaya Rogovaya river
Russia (European) Valley of Sysola river
Russia (European) Kargopol' area
Russia (European) Coastal belt of eastern Murmansk
Russia (European) Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Torna-Shoina watershed
Russia (European) Nerussa - Desna woodland
Russia (European) Lake Il'men and adjoining marshy plain
Russia (European) Arski fish-ponds
Russia (European) Kamsko-Ikski area
Russia (European) Central Forest Biosphere Reserve and adjacent areas
Russia (European) Bulgarski
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
Russia (European) Shalkaro-Zhetykol'ski lake system
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Pinezhski Nature Reserve
Ukraine Polis'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Lyman lake
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Georgia Kolkheti
Norway Varangerfjord
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Sweden Vindel Mountains (including Lake Tärna)
Sweden Påkketan
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Danube
Armenia Lake Sevan and environs
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
Ukraine Pivdennyj Bug river valley (Goloskiv village)
Ukraine Chauda
North Macedonia Lake Dojran
Ukraine Styr' river valley (Luchytsi village)
Turkey Saros Bay
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Iraq Shuweicha Marsh
Iraq Sinnaf Seasonal Wetlands
Iraq Hawizeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Incheh Borun lake and marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Russia (European) Sondugski Reserve and its outskirts
Russia (European) Sarpinskaya lake-system
Russia (European) Turali lakes
Russia (European) Turalinskaya lagoon
Russia (European) Berkubinski forest
Russia (European) Southern coast of Ladoga Lake
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay
Russia (European) Curonian Bay
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Russia (European) Neman river Delta and the coast of the Curonian Bay
China (mainland) Huma He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Huzhong Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Nanweng He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xunbiela He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Keluo He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Fenglin Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qindeli Sturgeon Reserve
China (mainland) Hala Hai
China (mainland) Laodengshan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Liangshui Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Naoli He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Lianhuanhu Waterbird Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qixing He Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Heiyupao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qihulin He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yangdali Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yueya Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hukou Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Nuomin - Bila He - Dayangshu
China (mainland) Nansihu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanmenxia Dam Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Shijiu Hu (Anhui)
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Chen Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Longgan Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Min Jiang Estuary
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
Iran, Islamic Republic of Ghara Gheshlaq No-Hunting Area
Pakistan Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands
Pakistan Manchar Lake
Pakistan Ucchali Wetland Complex
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands
Russia (Asian) Amur valley near Blagoveshensk
Russia (Asian) Northern slope of Khamar-Daban mountains
Russia (Asian) Korfa Gulf (northern part)
Russia (Asian) Talan Island
Russia (Asian) Khanka plain
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay
Russia (Asian) Shantarskiye Islands
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake
Russia (Asian) Lebediny refuge (Markovo depression)
Russia (Asian) Lena delta
Russia (Asian) North Baikal wetlands
Russia (Asian) Azas Nature Reserve
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Trekhozerki lakes
Russia (Asian) Ulukhkol' lake
Russia (Asian) Kolyma delta
Russia (Asian) Terpyey-Tumus
Russia (Asian) Muna-Besyuke
Russia (Asian) Angara river source
Russia (Asian) Manily lakes
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay
Russia (Asian) Gusikha river basin and lower Balakhnya river
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Russia (Asian) Indigirka delta
Russia (Asian) Yana delta
Russia (Asian) San-Yuryakh
Russia (Asian) Zhupanovskiy lagoon
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons
Russia (Asian) Lower Anadyr lowlands
Russia (Asian) Keremesit-Sundrun watershed
Russia (Asian) Abyy lowland
Russia (Asian) Kharchinskoye lake
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays
Russia (Asian) Kolyma-Alazeya lowland
Russia (Asian) Malamvayam lagoon
Russia (Asian) Karaginskiy Island
India Kaziranga National Park
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary
India Gangapur Dam and grasslands
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake)
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande
South Korea Cheonsu Bay
Russia (Asian) Chaun delta
Russia (Asian) Parapol'skiy valley
Belarus Asvieja
Belarus Cikiny astravy
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa
Estonia Väinameri
Georgia Alazani Valley
Georgia Jandari Lake
Russia (European) Novotroitskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Ptich'ye (Bird's) Lake
Russia (European) Sviyago-Kubninskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Unskaya bay
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Russia (Central Asian) Kocherdyksky goose zakaznik
Russia (European) Kuloy river
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Azerbaijan Red Lake
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Birsuat
Russia (European) Dedinovo flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Karakulinskaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Zolotarevskaya area
France Domaine d'Orx
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etang de Lindre
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Cap Gris-nez
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France La Dombes
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Plaine du Forez
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
Kazakhstan Zharsor-Urkash Salt Lakes
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Kultansor and Tatysor Lakes
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Russia (Central Asian) Inder'
Russia (Central Asian) Solenoye lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e-Moghan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Syria Tadmur desert and mountains
Uzbekistan Amudarya floodlands near Termez
Uzbekistan Dalverzin State Forestry and Hunting Management Area
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Uzbekistan Karnabchul Steppe
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes
Turkmenistan Turkmenbashy Bay
Turkmenistan South Cheleken Bay
Ukraine Buzhok river valley (Anastavtsi)
Kazakhstan Ashchykol and Barakkol Lakes
Kazakhstan Korgankol Lake
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes
Sweden Stornäset – Hörningsholm
Kazakhstan Zhylandy Lake
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Russia (European) Kissyk area
Kazakhstan Aksuat Lake
Kazakhstan Bolshoy Kak Lake
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk-Maybalyk Lake System
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Kazakhstan Zhaltyr Lake
Kazakhstan Balykty Lake
Kazakhstan Maliy Kak Lake
Kazakhstan Zhylandy Lake
Uzbekistan Chimkurgan Reservoir
Netherlands Zwanenwater & Pettemerduinen
Kazakhstan Akzhan Lake
Kazakhstan Sulukol Lake
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Oudeland van Strijen
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Kevo
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Taiwan, China Kuantu
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Russia (European) Floodplain of Cheptsa river
Russia (European) Downstream of Ik river
Russia (European) Steppes in the vicinity of Kanavka village
Russia (European) Kazachka
Russia (European) Agriculture lands of south and east of Novouzenski district
Russia (European) Floodplains of the Unzha river near Kologriv
Russia (European) Pinezhski meadow
Russia (European) River Chernaya
Iraq Dalmaj Marsh
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Rheiderland
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Lake Fundata
Romania Lake Strachina
Romania Lake Taşaul
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 10
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Russia (Central Asian) Holes of the Karasuk river downstream
China (mainland) Fang Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Huanzidong
China (mainland) Jiuduansha Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Shishankou Reservoir
China (mainland) Mengjin Huanghe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Taipo Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary
Kazakhstan Shagyrkol and Mamyrkol lakes
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Kazakhstan Salmanykol lake
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Russia (Asian) Barluksko-Sayanskaya floodplain of Oka river and Kuitunskaya foreststeppe
Russia (Asian) Troitskoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kunovatski
Russia (Central Asian) Kondo-Alymskaya
Norway Varanger Peninsula
Norway Varangerfjord (including Hornøya and Reinøya)
Iraq Himreen Lake
Iraq Teab Seasonal Wetlands
Iraq Dukan Lake
Syria Sabkhet Ar-Rawad
Russia (Asian) Kytalyk
Norway Iešjávri
Norway Sirbma fields
Russia (Asian) Lower Kamchatka river
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Uzbekistan Talimardzhan Reservoir
Netherlands Abtskolk & De Putten
Azerbaijan Krasnoye Lake and Absheron Waterbodies
Azerbaijan Samukh (Hunting Area)
Azerbaijan Jandar Lake
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Lower Kura Valley
Iran, Islamic Republic of Akh Gol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bojagh
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh
Turkmenistan Ayrakly – Garadzhaovlak
Turkmenistan Saryyazy
Turkmenistan Tallymerjen
Turkmenistan Mergen
Sweden Bay of Svensksund

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Shrubland Subarctic suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 700 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Nomadic grazing Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Neovison vison Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Vulpes vulpes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Vulpes lagopus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of ground water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Anser erythropus. Downloaded from on 23/05/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 23/05/2022.