LC
Lesser Spotted Eagle Clanga pomarina



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Clanga pomarina (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Aquila.

Aquila pomarina (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into A. pomarina and A. hastata following Parry et al. (2002).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Parry, S. J.; Clark, W. S.; Prakash, V. 2002. On the taxonomic status of the Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata. Ibis 144: 665-675.
Parry, S.J., Clark, W.S. and Prakash, V. 2002. On the taxonomic status of the Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata. Ibis 144: 665-675.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2007 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,340,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 13,300,000
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 40000-60000 good estimated 2012
Population trend Stable poor not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16.6 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 16,400-22,100 pairs, which equates to 32,800-44,200 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 73% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 44,900-60,500 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. It is placed in the band 40,000 to 60,000 mature individuals. A survey in 2014 counted 47,594 individuals in southern Turkey (S. Oppel in litt. 2014). Whilst c.58,000 individuals were recorded in 2008 during migration counts over the Bosporus (Fülöp et al. 2014).

Trend justification: Although this species may have undergone a decline, recent annual counts in Israel suggest the population has recovered to some extent in recent years (D. Alon in litt. 2006). In Europe, which supports approximately 73% of the global population, the population size is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Chad N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland V Extant
France V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq U Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan V Extant
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malta V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco V Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Netherlands V Extant
Nigeria V Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman V Extant Yes Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Sweden N Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes Yes
Yemen V Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Czechia Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
North Macedonia Kozhuf mountain and Boshava river
Serbia Resava gorge
Serbia Obedska bara
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Azerbaijan Karayazi forest
Azerbaijan Gekchai Bozdag mountains
Azerbaijan Kusari (Gusari) area
Azerbaijan Samur Delta
Azerbaijan Shamkhor area
Azerbaijan Sheki upland
Azerbaijan Vilajchai valley
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Belarus Balota Dzikoje
Belarus Sporovo
Belarus Beresina
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Kaz'jany
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Kamanos Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Kauno Marios water reservoir & eastern coastal zone
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa
Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma
Estonia Soomaa
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Sarnate bogs
Latvia Lielais Kemeru bog
Latvia Abeli
Latvia Mangene forest
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
Bulgaria Yatata
Bulgaria Ropotamo Complex
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Radinchevo
Bulgaria Strandzha
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Harsovska Reka
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Romania Niculitel and Babadag forest
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Dobron forest
Moldova Royal Forest
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain
Moldova Beech Land Forest
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Liwiec river valley
Poland Parczew forests
Poland Obra river flood-plain
Poland Slowinski National Park
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Swidwie lake
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Luknajno lake
Poland Nietlice marshes
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Rozwarowo Marshes
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Chelm calcareous marshes
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Oswin site
Poland Slupia River Valley
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Douskon and Kasidiaris mountains, Delvinaki lakes and Gormou valley
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Lake Kalodiki, Margariti and Karteri marshes
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Asvestades - Vrysika area
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Finland Värtsilä valley
Hungary Mátra
Hungary Börzsöny
Hungary Pacsmag Lakes of Regöly
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Csanád Pusztas
Hungary Aggtelek Karst
Hungary Gerecse
Russia (European) Sources of Osuga river
Russia (European) Karaichevski forest
Russia (European) Cheremshanski forest
Russia (European) Redrovski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Stakhovski marshes
Russia (European) Zavidovo Reserve, including Lotoshinski, Klinski and Diatlovo fish ponds
Russia (European) Akhmet-Skala ridge
Russia (European) Kurdzhips river valley
Russia (European) Neman river Delta and the coast of the Curonian Bay
Russia (European) Central Meschera lake system
Russia (European) Rasskazan' lake and flood-plain of Khoper river
Russia (European) Nizhnekamskaya flood-plain
Ukraine Forests in Dnipro and Desna valleys
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Turiya river valley
Ukraine Cheremske mire
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Jordan Northern Jordan Valley (North Ghor)
Ukraine Orikhivski lake-system
France Montagne de la Clape
Italy Po Delta
Italy Costa Viola
Italy Mount Conero
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Albania Velipoja
Czechia Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
Georgia Meskheti
Georgia Kolkheti
Serbia Cer mountain
Slovakia Velká Fatra
Slovakia Polana
Slovakia Lest
Slovakia Muránska plateau and Stolicke hills
Serbia Vlasina
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Poland Gorce mountains
Germany Ueckermünder Heide
Germany Putzarer See, Galenbecker See, Brohmer Berge
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Wulfener Bruch and Teichgebiet Osternienburg
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Bayerischer Wald National Park with Arber region and Hohem Bogen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Heerter See
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Montenegro Biogradska woods
Turkey Bosphorus
Israel Western Negev
Russia (European) Nemanski forest
Russia (European) Kaluzhskiye Zaseki Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Vicinity of Dakhovka
Russia (European) Laman-Kam area
Russia (European) Klyazminski reserve
Russia (European) Vishtynetski (Red) forest
Russia (European) Polesski Forest
Russia (European) Tselau bog system
Russia (European) Bryansko-Zhizdrinskoye woodland
Russia (European) Skalisti ridge between Urup and Maly Zelenchuk rivers
Russia (European) Valley of Khodz' river
Belarus Polesie Reserve
Belarus Asvieja
Belarus Chavanščyna
Belarus Čyrvonaje
Belarus Sporaŭskaje balota
Belarus L'va floodplain
Belarus Voronichskiy ostrov
Belarus Pcič floodplain
Belarus Vieluta
Belarus Vydryca
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Biarezina-Hajna
Belarus Cikiny astravy
Belarus Balota Zvaniec
Belarus Staraja Vic'
Belarus Dražbitka-Svina
Belarus Janka river floodplain
Belarus Prostyr
Estonia Kärevere
Estonia Otepää
Estonia Lahemaa
Russia (European) Valley of Terek River (Mozdokski District)
Russia (European) Outskirts of Kislovodsk
Russia (European) Sokolino-Kasplyanskaya area
Latvia Abava valley
Latvia Dubna flood-plain
Latvia Adazi
Latvia Durbe lake meadows
Latvia Gauja national park
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Latvia Orlovas bog
Latvia Dviete flood-plain
Latvia Irbe valley and Dizpurvs
Latvia Seda marsh
Latvia Uzava meadows
Latvia Ziemelgauja
Latvia Augsdaugava
Latvia Kuja
Latvia Pape
Latvia Sita and Pededze flood-plain
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Slitere and Zilie kalni
Latvia Stikli
Latvia Berzpils bogs and flood-plains
Latvia Lake Lielauce
Latvia Mezole
Latvia Rakupe and Pace
Latvia Sturu and Zvardes bogs
Latvia Razna
Latvia Svete lower reaches
Latvia Ruja flood-plain
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Ivailovgrad Reservoir
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Kamchia Complex
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Studenets
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds
Armenia Dsegh
Armenia Haghartsin
France Etang du Bagnas
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Suha Reka
Russia (European) Dono-Donetskoye flood-plain
Russia (European) Gavan'skie oak-forest
Russia (European) Semilovskoye forestry
Lithuania Simonys & Ramuldava forest complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lisar Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e Naz Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kavir region
Iran, Islamic Republic of Mooteh Protected Area
Israel Northern Arava valley
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Jordan Ajloun
Lebanon Shouf Cedars Nature Reserve
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Derventski Heights
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Russia (European) Shakinski oak forest
Ukraine Desna river part of National Nature Park "Desnyans'ko-Staroguts'kyj"
Lebanon Yanta
Lebanon Yammouneh Nature Reserve
Ukraine Buzhok river valley (Anastavtsi)
Ukraine Vodorazdil'ni i Zovnishni Gorgany
Ukraine Ratsynska Dacha Zakaznik
Jordan Dana
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Pasleka river valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Insko Site
Poland Druzno lake
Poland Warmia Site
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Russia (European) Baksanskoye ravine
Russia (European) Verkhnechegemskaya depression
Russia (European) Chegemskoye ravine
Russia (European) Khulamskoye ravine
Russia (European) Sources of Kuma river
Russia (European) Marinskaya cuesta of Skalisti ridge
Russia (European) Malka river ravine
Russia (European) Ravine of Gundelen-Tyzyl river
Poland Wkrzanska Forest
Poland Cedynia Site
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Trzebiatow Site
Poland Witnica-Debno Site
Poland Barlinek Forest
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Forest at Gwda River
Poland Slowinska Site
Poland Zgierzynieckie Lake
Poland Rogalin Site
Poland Bielawa Swamps
Poland Pilica River Valley
Poland Kozienicka Forest
Poland Dobskie Lake
Poland Skaliskie Forest
Poland Orzysz Military Area
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Wkra and Mlawka Rivers Valleys
Poland Upper Nurzec River Valley
Poland Bubnow Marsh
Poland Borecka forest
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Kostrzyn River Valley
Poland Lukow Forests
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Mosty-Zahajki Site
Poland Polesie
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Tyszowce Site
Poland Upper Huczwa River Catchment
Poland Szyszla River Valley
Poland Solokija River Valley
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Slonne Mountains
Russia (European) Lower reaches of Sulak river
Russia (European) Yangiyurtovski reserve and Bakas fen
Poland Roztocze
Russia (European) Krasnodarskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Krasniy Les area
Turkey Terkos Basin
Lebanon Lake Qaraoun
Turkey Ardahan forest
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Przemysl Plateau
Turkey Beyşehir Lake
Turkey Türkmenbaba Mountain
Poland Strzeleckie forests
Turkey Kelkit Valley
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey İğneada Forests
Hungary Bükk
Slovakia Laborecka upland
Slovakia Horna Orava
Lebanon Bentael forest area
Lebanon Qadisha Valley
Lebanon Qammouaa
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Croatia Spacva Basin
Croatia Pokuplje Basin
Croatia Lower Posavina
Slovakia Volovské hills
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Biebrza river valley
Slovakia Čergov
Slovakia Slanské hills
Turkey Yalnızçam Mountains
Russia (European) Karabash-Kudashskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Bryn'
Lebanon Jabal Moussa Mountain
Belarus Nalibockaja Pušča
Germany Gransee / Zehdenick / Schnelle Havel
Germany Randow-Welse-Bruch / Uckermärkische Agrarlandschaft
Germany Rittgartener Heide / Amalienhof
Germany Woodlands of Western Pomerania, eastern range
Germany Farmlands near Tützpatz
Germany Drömling (Sachsen-Anhalt)
Germany Serrahn and Woldegk-Feldberger Hügelland
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Middle Elbe valley with Steckby-Lödderitz forest
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Ploetzkau flood-plain forest
Germany Annaburger Heide
Romania Dealurile Homoroadelor
Romania Dealurile Nordice ale Munţilor Făgăraş
Romania Dealurile Târnavelor - Valea Nirajului
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Romania Giurgeu Depression
Romania Dorohoi - Şaua Bucecei
Romania Baraolt Mountains - Bodoc
Romania Piatra Şoimului - Scorţeni - Gârleni
Romania Podişul Hârtibaciului
Romania Vânători - Neamţ
Poland Sieniawa Forest
Poland Mircze Site
Poland Elblag Height
Lebanon Beirut River Valley
Lebanon Ramlieh Valley
Lebanon Rim - Sannine Mountain
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Lebanon Tannourine Nature Reserve
Lithuania Labunava forest
Lithuania Lanciunava forest
Hungary Zemplén Mountains
Lithuania Gedziunai forest complex
Hungary Tolnai-Hegyhát
Lithuania Gubernija-Gruzdziai forest complex
Lithuania Gruzai, Uzulenis, Taujenai, Skaistuziai and neighbouring forests complex
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Swidwie Site
Poland Ilawa Forest
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Pszczew Lakes and Obra River Valley
Poland Slawskie Lakes
Poland Calowanie Swamp
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Podedworze Reservoir
Poland Janów forests
Poland Beskid Zywiecki Mountains
Poland Orawa and Nowy Targ Bogs
Poland Pieniny Mountains
Poland Beskid Wyspowy Mountains
Poland Grzeda Sokalska Beechwood
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Vistula Spit
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Kwiecewo Site
Poland Poprad Site
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site
Poland Hel Peninsula
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake
Belarus Braslav lakes
Egypt Suez
Egypt Ain Sukhna
Egypt Ras Mohammed National Park
Egypt Gebel El Zeit
Lebanon Hima Anjar - Kfar Zabad
Palestinian Authority Territories Jericho
Palestinian Authority Territories Ein Al-Fashkha
Syria Jabal al-Shuah
Russia (European) Utrish Reserve and adjacent coastal waters
Serbia Derdap gorge
Serbia Fruska gora
Estonia Räpina polder
Estonia Väinameri
Palestinian Authority Territories Um Al-Safa - Nabi Saleh
Serbia Bosutska forest
Serbia Vršačke Planine
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Estonia Haanja
Estonia Karula
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Mount Cholomontas
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Antichasia mountains and Meteora
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Antikythira island and surrounding islets
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Käntu-Kastja
Estonia Misso
Serbia Toplica

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem conversion
Other options Other threat Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Flight paths Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Clanga pomarina. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/06/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/06/2020.