Lesser Spotted Eagle Clanga pomarina


Taxonomic note
Clanga pomarina (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Aquila.

Aquila pomarina (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into A. pomarina and A. hastata following Parry et al. (2002).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Parry, S. J.; Clark, W. S.; Prakash, V. 2002. On the taxonomic status of the Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata. Ibis 144: 665-675.
Parry, S.J., Clark, W.S. and Prakash, V. 2002. On the taxonomic status of the Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata. Ibis 144: 665-675.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2007 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,340,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 13,300,000
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 40000-60000 good estimated 2012
Population trend Stable poor not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16.6 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 16,400-22,100 pairs, which equates to 32,800-44,200 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 73% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 44,900-60,500 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. It is placed in the band 40,000 to 60,000 mature individuals. A survey in 2014 counted 47,594 individuals in southern Turkey (S. Oppel in litt. 2014). Whilst c.58,000 individuals were recorded in 2008 during migration counts over the Bosporus (Fülöp et al. 2014).

Trend justification: Although this species may have undergone a decline, recent annual counts in Israel suggest the population has recovered to some extent in recent years (D. Alon in litt. 2006). In Europe, which supports approximately 73% of the global population, the population size is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Chad N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland V Extant
France V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq U Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan V Extant
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malta V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco V Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Netherlands V Extant
Nigeria V Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman V Extant Yes Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Sweden N Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes Yes
Yemen V Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Armenia Dsegh
Armenia Haghartsin
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Belarus Nalibockaja Pušča
Belarus Polesie Reserve
Belarus Staraja Vic'
Bulgaria Derventski Heights
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Harsovska Reka
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Strandzha
Bulgaria Suha Reka
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Pokuplje Basin
Estonia Kärevere
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Otepää
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa
Estonia Soomaa
Hungary Bükk
Hungary Mátra
Hungary Tolnai-Hegyhát
Hungary Zemplén Mountains
Latvia Kuja
Latvia Razna
Lithuania Gedziunai forest complex
Lithuania Gruzai, Uzulenis, Taujenai, Skaistuziai and neighbouring forests complex
Lithuania Gubernija-Gruzdziai forest complex
Lithuania Labunava forest
Lithuania Lanciunava forest
Lithuania Simonys & Ramuldava forest complex
Moldova Beech Land Forest
Palestinian Authority Territories Um Al-Safa - Nabi Saleh
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Insko Site
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Mircze Site
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Pasleka river valley
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Przemysl Plateau
Poland Roztocze
Poland Sieniawa Forest
Poland Slonne Mountains
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Warmia Site
Romania Baraolt Mountains - Bodoc
Romania Dealurile Homoroadelor
Romania Dealurile Nordice ale Munţilor Făgăraş
Romania Dealurile Târnavelor - Valea Nirajului
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Romania Dorohoi - Şaua Bucecei
Romania Giurgeu Depression
Romania Piatra Şoimului - Scorţeni - Gârleni
Romania Podişul Hârtibaciului
Romania Vânători - Neamţ
Russia (European) Kaluzhskiye Zaseki Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Neman river Delta and the coast of the Curonian Bay
Russia (European) Polesski Forest
Russia (European) Tselau bog system
Russia (European) Vishtynetski (Red) forest
Serbia Derdap gorge
Serbia Fruska gora
Serbia Obedska bara
Slovakia Čergov
Slovakia Horna Orava
Slovakia Laborecka upland
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Volovské hills
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem conversion
Other options Other threat Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Flight paths Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Clanga pomarina. Downloaded from on 17/02/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 17/02/2020.