Lesser Short-toed Lark Alaudala rufescens


Taxonomic note

Calandrella rufescens (AERC TAC [2003]; Cramp et al. [1977-1994]; Dowsett & Forbes-Watson [1993]; Sibley & Monroe [1990, 1993]) and C. cheleensis (Sibley & Monroe [1990, 1993]) have been lumped into Alaudala rufescens following del Hoyo and Collar (2016).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 24 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 30,800,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 31,800,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 0
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 1,570,000-3,010,000 pairs, which equates to 3,130,000-6,020,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The population is estimated to be in decline following to recorded regional declines, owing to ongoing habitat loss (del Hoyo et al. 2004). The European population is estimated to be decreasing (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bulgaria V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy V Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Montenegro V Extant
Morocco N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant
Somalia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan U Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Lake Boz-Koba
Azerbaijan Korchai area
Azerbaijan Mugan steppe
Azerbaijan Pirsagat Islands and Los Island
Portugal Castro Marim
Spain Bardenas Reales
Spain Monegrillo-Pina steppe area-Pina
Spain Los Monegros (South)
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Belchite-Mediana
Spain Alcañiz salt lakes
Spain Guadalentín saltmarshes
Spain Hoya de Baza
Spain Mountain range and saltpans at Cabo de Gata
Spain Ballobar-Candasnos
Spain Jaén countryside
Spain Lanzarote islets
Spain Janubio saltpans
Spain Famara sandy plain
Spain Plains of La Corona-Las Honduras
Spain Plains of Mareta-Hoya de la Yegua
Spain Isthmus of Jandía sandy plain
Spain Lajares sandy plain-Cotillo-Ezquinzo
Spain Los Molinos gully-Plain of La Laguna
Spain Tarajalejo mountain range
Spain Cuchillete de Buenavista-gully of La Torre-Los Alares
Spain Peninsula of Jandía
Spain Los Rodeos-La Esperanza
Spain El Médano coast
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Afghanistan Registan desert
Jordan Shaumari
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Turkmenistan Repetek
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate major breeding
Shrubland Temperate major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Alaudala rufescens. Downloaded from on 16/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 16/08/2022.