Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2011 Least Concern
2008 Vulnerable A2b,c,e; A3b,c,e; A4b,c,e
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 24,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 61,600,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals good estimated 2007
Population trend Stable medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 0 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 0 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.7 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 30,500-38,000 pairs, which equates to 61,000-76,100 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Several thousand pairs breed outside this range, principally in central Asia. Wintering population estimates include a roost in Senegal of over 28,600 individuals in January 2007, and 98,000 in south Africa based on roost counts in 2006/2007. The population in China has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: Although severe declines were recorded during the second half of the 20th century, the species appears to be stable or increasing slightly in many parts of its range (e.g. Iñigo and Barov 2010), including Europe (BirdLife International 2015) and its overall population trend is considered to have been stable during the last three generations (estimated to be 17 years).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes Yes
Angola N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extinct Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh U Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cambodia U Extant
Cameroon V Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Congo V Extant Yes Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extinct Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes Yes
Eswatini N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
Gabon V Extant Yes Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany V Extant
Ghana N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan V Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan U Extant Yes
Laos N Extinct Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes Yes
Liechtenstein V Extant
Malawi N Extant Yes
Maldives N Extant Yes Yes
Mali N Extant Yes Yes
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant Yes Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes Yes
Niger N Extant Yes Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes
Singapore V Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extinct Yes
Slovenia N Extinct Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Sweden V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan U Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Afghanistan Hari Rud valley
Afghanistan North-western steppe
Afghanistan Salang Kotal
Albania Gjirokastra
Algeria Belezma
Algeria Massif Djurdjura
Armenia Gorayk
Azerbaijan Barda tugai forest
Azerbaijan Mount Kargabazar and Mount Gush-gaya
Botswana Lake Ngami
Botswana Okavango Delta
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
China (mainland) Altay forest and steppe
China (mainland) Barkol Lake and grassland
China (mainland) Baytik Shan
China (mainland) Burgen River Valley
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake
China (mainland) Changbai Shan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dalai Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dali Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Damaoqi
China (mainland) Dunhuang Nature Reserve and Western Qilian Shan mountains
China (mainland) Ili River basin
China (mainland) Karamay Mountains
China (mainland) Kunes forest
China (mainland) Mori Grassland
China (mainland) Nei Mongol Helan Shan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Nudeng
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Pingliang
China (mainland) Sayram Nur
China (mainland) Songhua Hu, Baishan Hu and Hongshi Hu
China (mainland) Tacheng (Qoqek) area
China (mainland) Taihang Shan Macaque Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Ulansuhai Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve
Croatia Kvarner Islands
Egypt Ain Sukhna
Egypt El Qa plain
Egypt Gebel El Zeit
Egypt Ras Mohammed National Park
Egypt Suez
Eritrea Asmara escarpment
Eritrea Dehalak Archipelago and offshore islands
Eritrea Semenawi Bahri
Ethiopia Awash National Park
Ethiopia Fogera plains
Ethiopia Lake Langano
Ethiopia Yangudi-Rassa National Park
France Crau
Gibraltar (to UK) Rock of Gibraltar
Greece Anthofyto area
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Elassona area
Greece Farsala area
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Galaxidi
Greece Ioannina city
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Lake Pamvotida (Ioannina)
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Lower Kalamas gorge
Greece Mati wetland of Tyrnavos
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Dikaios, lake Psalidi and Alyki lagoon, Kos
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Northeastern peninsula of Crete
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Thessaly plain
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Tyrnavos area
India Barnawapara Wildlife Sanctuary
India Basai wetlands
India Bhal area
India Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park
India Bordoibam-Bilmukh Bird Sanctuary
India D'Ering Memorial Wildlife Sanctuary
India Danapur cantonment area
India Gangapur Dam and grasslands
India Grass Hills
India Itanagar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Jaikwadi Wildlife Sanctuary
India Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary
India Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Kaziranga National Park
India Khangchendzonga National Park and Biosphere Reserve
India Lava - Neora Valley National Park
India Lhonak Valley
India Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary
India Manas National Park
India Melghat Tiger Reserve
India Mokama Taal (Barah) Wetlands
India Nalsarovar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Nameri National Park
India Navegaon National Park
India Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary
India Palamau Tiger Reserve
India Pench Tiger Reserve
India Sailana Kharmor Sanctuary
India Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary
India Sultanpur National Park
India Toranmal Reserve Forest
India Tso Lhamo Plateau - Lashar - Sebu La - Yumesamdong Complex
India Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
India Wynaad Wildlife Sanctuary
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e Naz Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hari Rud valley near Sarrakhs
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Israel Hula valley
Israel Jerusalem (west)
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Judean desert
Israel Judean foothills
Israel Ramot Menashe
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Italy Biviere and Plain of Gela
Italy Gravine
Italy Murge
Italy Sicani mountains, Rocca Busambra and Ficuzza forest
Jordan Ajloun
Jordan Dana
Jordan Wadi Mujib
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Aktau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park
Kazakhstan Arkaly Mountains
Kazakhstan Arys-Karaktau State Reserved Zone
Kazakhstan Ayak-Bestau Hills
Kazakhstan Basgurly-Zhazgurly Depression
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Kazakhstan Eastern Kazakhstan uplands
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains
Kazakhstan Kaundy Depression
Kazakhstan Kenshektau Mountains
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Manyrak Mountains
Kazakhstan Middle reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Mugodzhary
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Sagyz
Kazakhstan Toraygyr Ridge
Kazakhstan Uil River and Taysoygan Sands
Kazakhstan Ulytau Mountains
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Western cliff faces of the Ustyurt Plateau
Kazakhstan Zhagabulak Forest
Kazakhstan Zhagalbayly and Tuyemoynak Hills
Kenya Lake Nakuru National Park
Kenya Masai Mara
Kenya Mau Narok - Molo grasslands
Kenya Mount Kenya
Kenya Tsavo East National Park
Kuwait Al-Jahra Pool Nature Reserve
Kuwait Jal Az-Zor
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Kyrgyzstan Western Alai, Kok-Suu river
Libya Jabal al Akhdar
Malawi Lake Chilwa and flood-plain
Mongolia Achit Lake
Mongolia Borzon Gobi
Mongolia Buir Lake
Mongolia Bulgan River
Mongolia Darkhad Depression
Mongolia Dayan Lake
Mongolia Delta of Orkhon and Selenge Rivers
Mongolia Eej Khad
Mongolia Erdenesant Mountains
Mongolia Erkhel Lake
Mongolia Gorkhi-Terelj National Park
Mongolia Govi Gurvan Saikhan Mountain
Mongolia Ikh Gazriin Chuluu
Mongolia Ikh Nartiin Chuluu Nature Reserve
Mongolia Khan Khentii Strictly Protected Area
Mongolia Khangain Nuruu National Park
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khar Yamaat Nature Reserve
Mongolia Khasagt Khairkhan Mountain
Mongolia Khomiin Tal
Mongolia Khongil
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake
Mongolia Khustain Nuruu National Park
Mongolia Maikhant Mountain
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Mongolia Orog Lake
Mongolia Sharga Lake
Mongolia Tarialan
Mongolia Telmen Lake
Mongolia Ugtam Nature Reserve
Mongolia Uureg Lake
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Morocco Jbel Zerhoun
Nepal Annapurna Conservation Area
Nepal Chitwan National Park
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
Nepal Mai Valley forests
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve
North Macedonia Gradsko-Rosoman-Negotino
North Macedonia Lake Tikvesh
North Macedonia Mariovo
North Macedonia Ovche Pole
North Macedonia Pelagonia
North Macedonia Preod-Gjugjance
North Macedonia River Raec valley
North Macedonia Tikvesh Region
Oman Qurm Nature Reserve
Oman Sun Farms, Sohar
Palestinian Authority Territories Jericho
Palestinian Authority Territories Jerusalem (east)
Palestinian Authority Territories Jerusalem wilderness
Palestinian Authority Territories Mar Saba - Wadi Qadron
Palestinian Authority Territories Wadi Al-Qelt
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Cuba
Portugal Évora plains
Portugal River Guadiana
Portugal Vila Fernando
Romania Danube Delta
Russia (Asian) Belozersk lakes
Russia (Asian) Oruku-Shina
Russia (Asian) Sayanski canyon of the Enisey river
Russia (Asian) Tere-Khol' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Blagoveschenskaya (Kulunda lake and vicinity)
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Russia (European) Beglitskaya sand-spit
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Alatyr' river in vicinity of Ardatov
Russia (European) Insaro-Kovylkinski
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes
Russia (European) Kayakentski reserve
Russia (European) Krasnoarmeiskiye waste lands
Russia (European) Kulaksay lowland
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Russia (European) Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills
Russia (European) Stepnovski saltmarshes
Russia (European) Valley of Bashlychai river
Senegal Djoudj wetlands
South Africa Amersfoort - Bethal - Carolina District
South Africa Barberspan and Leeupan
South Africa Camdeboo National Park
South Africa Chrissie Pans
South Africa Golden Gate Highlands National Park
South Africa Karoo National Park
South Africa Kruger National Park and adjacent areas
South Africa Platberg-Karoo Conservancy
South Africa Rooiberge-Riemland
South Africa Steenkampsberg
Spain Albacete - Barrax - La Roda
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Alcázar de San Juan-Quero endorreic lagoons
Spain Alcudia valley and mountain range
Spain Azuaga-Llerena-Peraleda de Zaucejo
Spain Baja Alcarria
Spain Ballobar-Candasnos
Spain Belver de los Montes-Gallegos del Pan
Spain Brozas-Membrío
Spain Cabras, Aljibe and Montecoche mountain range
Spain Campiña de Jerez - Lebrija y Marisma de Trebujena
Spain Campiñas de Santaella - Écija
Spain Campo Charro y Tierras de Ledesma
Spain Campo de Calatrava
Spain Carmona countryside
Spain Cinca river rice fields and steppe area
Spain Condado-Campiña
Spain Confidential
Spain Córdoba countryside
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Ecija-Osuna plain
Spain El Temple - Lomas de Padul
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains
Spain Fuente de Cantos-Montemolín
Spain Jaén countryside
Spain Jerez de los Caballeros dehesas
Spain Llanos de Plasencia
Spain Los Monegros (South)
Spain Mérida-Montijo reservoir
Spain Monegrillo-Pina steppe area-Pina
Spain Oropesa plains
Spain Pedroches Occidentales
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Plasencia and San Bernabé mountain range
Spain Puebla de Don Fadrique-Las Cañadas
Spain San Clemente-Villarrobledo
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Talamanca-Camarma
Spain Tarifa
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Torrejón de Velasco - Secanos de Valdemoro
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Villafáfila
Sudan En Nahud
Sudan Jebel Marra
Syria Buhayrat al-Assad
Syria Tadmur desert and mountains
Tanzania Masai Steppe
Tanzania Mkomazi Game Reserve
Tanzania Mount Kilimanjaro
Tanzania Ngorongoro Conservation Area
Tanzania Serengeti National Park
Tanzania Tarangire National Park
Tunisia Aqueduc de Zaghouan
Turkey Akçakale Plains
Turkey Alaçatı
Turkey Balıkdamı
Turkey Bodrum peninsula
Turkey Çöl Lake and Çalıkdüzü
Turkey Dicle Valley
Turkey Ereğli Plain
Turkey Eşmekaya Marshes
Turkey Gediz Delta
Turkey Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands
Turkey Karacadağ
Turkey Kozanlı Gökgöl
Turkey Mogan lake
Turkey Nemrut Mountain
Turkey Seyfe Lake
Turkey Tuz Lake
Turkey Van Plains
Turkmenistan Sumbar
Uganda Kidepo Valley National Park
Uganda Murchison Falls National Park
Uganda Queen Elizabeth National Park and Lake George
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Ukrainian Steppe Nature Reserve
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Uzbekistan Angren Plateau
Uzbekistan Bukantau Mountain Range
Uzbekistan Darasay Gorge
Uzbekistan Mount Aktau
Uzbekistan Oygaing River Valley
Uzbekistan South-west Gizzar Foothills
Yemen Al-Kadan area
Yemen Jabal Sumarah
Yemen Mafraq al-Mukha
Zambia Bangweulu Swamps
Zambia Barotse Floodplains
Zambia Kafue Flats
Zambia Kafue National Park
Zambia Liuwa Plain National Park
Zambia Machile
Zambia Mutinondo Wilderness
Zambia Mutulanganga
Zambia Nyanje Hills
Zambia Nyika National Park (Zambia)
Zambia Simungoma
Zambia Uningi Pans

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Desert Hot suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Savanna Dry suitable passage
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 3700 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Falco naumanni. Downloaded from on 25/01/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/01/2020.