Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2011 Least Concern
2008 Vulnerable A2b,c,e; A3b,c,e; A4b,c,e
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 24,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 61,600,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals good estimated 2007
Population trend Stable medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 0 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 0 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.7 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 30,500-38,000 pairs, which equates to 61,000-76,100 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Several thousand pairs breed outside this range, principally in central Asia. Wintering population estimates include a roost in Senegal of over 28,600 individuals in January 2007, and 98,000 in south Africa based on roost counts in 2006/2007. The population in China has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: Although severe declines were recorded during the second half of the 20th century, the species appears to be stable or increasing slightly in many parts of its range (e.g. Iñigo and Barov 2010), including Europe (BirdLife International 2015) and its overall population trend is considered to have been stable during the last three generations (estimated to be 17 years).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes Yes
Angola N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extinct Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh U Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cambodia U Extant
Cameroon V Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Congo V Extant Yes Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extinct Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes Yes
Eswatini N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
Gabon V Extant Yes Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany V Extant
Ghana N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan V Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan U Extant Yes
Laos N Extinct Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes Yes
Liechtenstein V Extant
Malawi N Extant Yes
Maldives N Extant Yes Yes
Mali N Extant Yes Yes
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant Yes Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes Yes
Niger N Extant Yes Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes
Singapore V Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extinct Yes
Slovenia N Extinct Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Sweden V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan U Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Pafos Plain
North Macedonia Demir Kapija Gorge
North Macedonia River Crna gorge
North Macedonia Babuna gorge, Topolka gorge, and Crn Kamen
Azerbaijan Alty Agach area
Azerbaijan Barda tugai forest
Azerbaijan Gekchai Bozdag mountains
Azerbaijan Gobustan area
Azerbaijan Mount Ilandag
Azerbaijan Mount Kargabazar and Mount Gush-gaya
Azerbaijan Korchai area
Azerbaijan Lachin area
Azerbaijan Negram mountains
Azerbaijan Ordubad area
Azerbaijan Sheki upland
Portugal Évora plains
Portugal Castro Marim
Portugal South-west coast of Portugal
Portugal Upper River Douro and Águeda valleys
Portugal River Guadiana
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Campo Maior
Bulgaria Lomovete
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Rayanovtsi
Bulgaria Dolni Bogrov-Kazichene
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Romania Niculitel and Babadag forest
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Turkey Gediz Delta
Turkey Balıkdamı
Turkey Seyfe Lake
Turkey Kozanlı Gökgöl
Turkey Ereğli Plain
Turkey Eşmekaya Marshes
Turkey Tuz Lake
Palestine Wadi Al-Qelt
Palestine Mar Saba - Wadi Qadron
Palestine Ein Al-Fashkha
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Lower Kalamas gorge
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Western Milos, Antimilos and Polyaigos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Galaxidi
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Ikaria island
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Paramythia mountains
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mati wetland of Tyrnavos
Greece Anthofyto area
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Thessaly plain
Greece Farsala area
Greece Tyrnavos area
Greece Elassona area
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Lake Pamvotida (Ioannina)
Greece Ioannina city
Greece Vouraïkos gorge and Kalavryta
Greece Western, eastern and southern Rhodes
Greece Mount Dikaios, lake Psalidi and Alyki lagoon, Kos
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Greece Northeastern peninsula of Crete
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Beglitskaya sand-spit
Russia (European) Kulaksay lowland
Russia (European) Kamsko-Ikski area
Russia (European) Kurdzhips river valley
Russia (European) Insaro-Kovylkinski
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Alatyr' river in vicinity of Ardatov
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Irendyk ridge
Spain Los Monegros (South)
Spain Mérida-Montijo reservoir
Spain Malpartida de Cáceres-Arroyo de la Luz
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain Carrión-Frómista
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Talamanca-Camarma
Spain Guadalentín saltmarshes
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains
Spain Quipar reservoir, Molino mountain range and Cagitán plains
Spain La Cabrera mountain range
Spain Montes Aquilanos range
Spain Villafáfila
Spain Tordesillas-Mota del Marqués
Spain Castronuño-Zamora
Spain Belver de los Montes-Gallegos del Pan
Spain Puebla de Don Fadrique-Las Cañadas
Spain Mountain ranges south of Jaén
Spain Jaén countryside
Spain Ubrique and Grazalema mountain ranges
Spain Sierra Morena de Sevilla
Spain Carmona countryside
Spain Ecija-Osuna plain
Spain Tarifa
Spain Cabras, Aljibe and Montecoche mountain range
Spain Pedroches Occidentales
Spain Córdoba countryside
Spain Condado-Campiña
Spain Ceuta
Spain Ballobar-Candasnos
Spain Cinca river rice fields and steppe area
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Brozas-Membrío
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Jerez de los Caballeros dehesas
Spain Fuente de Cantos-Montemolín
Spain Azuaga-Llerena-Peraleda de Zaucejo
Spain San Clemente-Villarrobledo
Spain Tarancón-Ocaña-Corral de Almaguer
Spain Alcudia valley and mountain range
Spain Alcázar de San Juan-Quero endorreic lagoons
Spain Oropesa plains
Spain Campo de Calatrava
Spain Low Tietar river and La Vera valley
Spain Northern slope of Guadarrama mountain range
Spain Plasencia and San Bernabé mountain range
Spain Lácara-Morante
Spain Sierra de Aracena
Spain Campo de San Gregorio
Spain Torrecilla and Gigante mountain ranges
Spain Monegrillo-Pina steppe area-Pina
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Ukrainian Steppe Nature Reserve
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Psel river valley near Komsomol's'k
Spain Alcañiz salt lakes
France Crau
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
France Camargue
Italy Coast between Bosa and Alghero
Italy Murge
Italy Gravine
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Oristano wetlands
Italy Colostrai pool
Italy Castelluzzo
Italy Sicani mountains
Italy Cape Otranto and Cape Santa Maria di Leuca coast
Italy Costa Viola
Italy Madonie
Italy Rocca Busambra
Italy Gargano promontory
Italy Argentario
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Cape San Marco
Italy Sirente, Velino and Duchessa mountains
Albania Drini Delta
Gibraltar (to UK) Rock of Gibraltar
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Meskheti
Turkey Çöl Lake and Çalıkdüzü
Romania Bicaz gorge and Hăşmaş Mountains
Croatia Kornati National Park and Telascica Nature Park
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Danube
Botswana Okavango Delta
Botswana Lake Ngami
Algeria Massif Djurdjura
Algeria Belezma
Egypt Suez
Egypt Gebel El Zeit
Egypt El Qa plain
Egypt Ras Mohammed National Park
Egypt Ain Sukhna
Eritrea Dehalak Archipelago and offshore islands
Eritrea Semenawi Bahri
Eritrea Asmara escarpment
Ethiopia Fogera plains
Ethiopia Awash National Park
Ethiopia Lake Langano
Kenya Mount Kenya
Kenya Tsavo East National Park
Kenya Nairobi National Park
Kenya Lake Nakuru National Park
Kenya Masai Mara
Kenya Mau Narok - Molo grasslands
Libya Jabal al Akhdar
Morocco Jbel Zerhoun
Malawi Lake Chilwa and flood-plain
Sudan Jebel Marra
Sudan En Nahud
Senegal Djoudj wetlands
Tunisia Aqueduc de Zaghouan
Tanzania Mount Kilimanjaro
Tanzania Serengeti National Park
Tanzania Tarangire National Park
Tanzania Ngorongoro Conservation Area
Tanzania Mkomazi National Park
Uganda Queen Elizabeth National Park and Lake George
Uganda Murchison Falls National Park
South Africa Kruger National Park and adjacent areas
South Africa Steenkampsberg
South Africa Amersfoort - Bethal - Carolina District
South Africa Chrissie Pans
South Africa Grasslands
South Africa Barberspan and Leeupan
South Africa Platberg-Karoo Conservancy
South Africa Golden Gate Highlands National Park
South Africa Rooiberge-Riemland
South Africa Camdeboo National Park
South Africa Karoo National Park
Zambia Liuwa Plain National Park
Zambia Barotse Floodplains
Zambia Machile
Zambia Kafue Flats
Zambia Kafue National Park
Zambia Nyika National Park (Zambia)
North Macedonia Kozhuf mountain and Boshava river
North Macedonia Bistrentsi fishponds
North Macedonia Tikvesh Region
North Macedonia Lake Dojran
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Turkey Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands
Turkey Alaçatı
Turkey Bodrum Islands
United Arab Emirates Digdaga - Hamraniyah
Afghanistan Hari Rud valley
Afghanistan North-western steppe
Israel Judean foothills
Israel Jerusalem (west)
Israel Judean desert
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Israel Hula valley
Israel Ramot Menashe
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Iraq Habbaniya Lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e Naz Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hari Rud valley near Sarrakhs
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Jordan Wadi Mujib
Jordan Dana
Jordan Ajloun
Kuwait Jal Az-Zor
Kuwait Al-Jahra Pool Nature Reserve
Oman Qurm Nature Reserve
Oman Sun Farms, Sohar
Palestine Jericho
Palestine Jerusalem wilderness
Palestine Jerusalem (east)
Syria Tadmur desert and mountains
Syria Buhayrat al-Assad
Yemen Jabal Sumarah
Yemen Mafraq al-Mukha
Yemen Al-Kadan area
Ethiopia Yangudi-Rassa National Park
Uganda Kidepo Valley National Park
Zambia Bangweulu Swamps
Zambia Kasanka National Park
Russia (European) Stepnovski saltmarshes
Russia (European) Bulukhta area
Russia (European) Sulakskaya lagoon
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Songhua Hu, Baishan Hu and Hongshi Hu
China (mainland) Changbai Shan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dalai Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dali Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Nudeng
China (mainland) Damaoqi
China (mainland) Ulansuhai Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Nei Mongol Helan Shan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake
China (mainland) Altay forest and steppe
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
China (mainland) Burgen River Valley
China (mainland) Tacheng (Qoqek) area
China (mainland) Baytik Shan
China (mainland) Sayram Nur
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Mori Grassland
China (mainland) Barkol Lake and grassland
China (mainland) Ili River basin
China (mainland) Kunes forest
China (mainland) Anxi Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Pingliang
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Taihang Shan Macaque Nature Reserve
Mongolia Achit Lake
Mongolia Uureg Lake
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Mongolia Bulgan River
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Orog Lake
Mongolia Khomiin Tal
Mongolia Erkhel Lake
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Delta of Orkhon and Selenge Rivers
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Mongolia Buir Lake
Nepal Upper Mai Valley forests
Pakistan Ayubia National Park and Kao valley, Dunga Gali
Pakistan Indus Waterfowl Refuge
Pakistan Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary
Russia (Asian) Belozersk lakes
Russia (Asian) Oruku-Shina
Russia (Asian) Tere-Khol' lake
India D'Ering Memorial Wildlife Sanctuary
India Itanagar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bordoibam-Bilmukh Bird Sanctuary
India Kaziranga National Park
India Manas National Park
India Nameri National Park
India Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary
India Mokama Taal (Barah) Wetlands
India Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary
India Barnawapara Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bhal area
India Nalsarovar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
India Basai wetlands
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary
India Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Sultanpur National Park
India Palamau Tiger Reserve
India Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary
India Wynaad Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Gangapur Dam and grasslands
India Jaikwadi Wildlife Sanctuary
India Melghat Tiger Reserve
India Navegaon National Park
India Toranmal Reserve Forest
India Pench Tiger Reserve
India Sailana Kharmor Sanctuary
India Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park
India Lhonak Valley
India Tso Lhamo Plateau - Lashar - Sebu La - Yumesamdong Complex
India Grass Hills
India Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary
India Lava - Neora Valley National Park
India Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary
Mongolia Ikh Nartiin Chuluu Nature Reserve
India Danapur cantonment area
India Khangchendzonga National Park and Biosphere Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok
Russia (Central Asian) Kurkure mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Kurumbel'skaya steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Uzkaya Steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Cheka mountain
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Portugal Cuba
Armenia Gorayk
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Chaîne des Alpilles
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Blagoveschenskaya (Kulunda lake and vicinity)
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Russia (Central Asian) Ata-Anay Lake
Afghanistan Big Pamir
Afghanistan Small Pamir
Afghanistan Salang Kotal
Afghanistan Bande Amir
Mongolia Eej Khad
Mongolia Dayan Lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lar River Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Touran
Iraq Tharthar Lake and Al-Dhebaeji Fields
Iraq Samara Wetlands
Iraq Abu Dalaf and Shari lake
Mongolia Tarialan
Mongolia Darkhad Depression
Mongolia Erdenesant Mountains
Mongolia Khan Khentii Strictly Protected Area
Mongolia Govi Gurvan Saikhan Mountain
Mongolia Sharga Lake
Mongolia Gorkhi-Terelj National Park
Mongolia Galba Gobi
Israel Northern Arava valley
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands
Jordan Shaumari
Jordan Petra
Jordan Hisma Basin - Rum
Kuwait Al-Abraq Al-Khabari
Lebanon Horsh Ehden Nature Reserve
Lebanon Shouf Cedars Nature Reserve
Mongolia Borzon Gobi
Saudi Arabia Harrat al-Harrah
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Mahazat as-Sayd
Saudi Arabia National Wildlife Research Center and environs, Taif
Syria Euphrates valley
Yemen High mountains of Ibb
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
Uzbekistan Mount Aktau
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Kazakhstan Upper Charyn
Kazakhstan Arys-Karaktau State Reserved Zone
Kazakhstan Assy Plateau
Kazakhstan Toraygyr Ridge
Uzbekistan Bashkyzylsay Unit of the Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve
Uzbekistan Angren Plateau
Uzbekistan Bukantau Mountain Range
Turkmenistan Koytendag
Turkmenistan Sumbar
Kazakhstan Mugodzhary
Turkmenistan Dushakerekdag
Turkmenistan Gurykhovudan
Turkmenistan Kurtusuv - Khovudan
Zambia Simungoma
Turkmenistan Repetek
Zambia Nyanje Hills
Zambia Lukususi National Park
Zambia Uningi Pans
Zambia Mutinondo Wilderness
Turkmenistan Ersarybaba - Akkyr
Turkmenistan Depmechay
Turkmenistan Akjagaya
Zambia Lower Zambezi National Park
Zambia Mutulanganga
Kazakhstan Western cliff faces of the Ustyurt Plateau
Turkmenistan Goyungyrlan
Kazakhstan Kaundy Depression
Kazakhstan Basgurly-Zhazgurly Depression
Kazakhstan Aktau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Ulytau Mountains
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Ayak-Bestau Hills
Kazakhstan Western edge of the Karakoyin and Zhetikonyr Sands
Kazakhstan Middle reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Sarysu River
Russia (European) Krasnoarmeiskiye waste lands
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes
Russia (European) Valley of Bashlychai river
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Russia (European) Kayakentski reserve
Russia (European) Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills
Kazakhstan Arkaly Mountains
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains
Russia (European) Yangiyurtovski reserve and Bakas fen
Uzbekistan Oygaing River Valley
Uzbekistan Darasay Gorge
Uzbekistan South-west Gizzar Foothills
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Kazakhstan Zhagalbayly and Tuyemoynak Hills
Kazakhstan Eastern Kazakhstan uplands
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Russia (European) Valley of Bashlychai river
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Lebanon Hima Anjar - Kfar Zabad
Lebanon Metn
Lebanon Rim - Sannine Mountain
Portugal Vila Fernando
Russia (European) Outskirts of Arbali village
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Kenshektau Mountains
Kazakhstan Manyrak Mountains
Turkey Karacadağ
Turkey Nemrut Mountain
Turkey Akçakale Plains
Turkey Dicle Valley
Kazakhstan Zhagabulak Forest
Kazakhstan Uil River and Taysoygan Sands
Kazakhstan Sagyz
Russia (Central Asian) Aleyskaya
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain
Russia (Asian) Sayanski canyon of the Enisey river
Russia (Asian) Islands of the Enisey river near Shushenskoye
Russia (European) Lake El'ton
Turkey Mogan lake
Guinea Foret Classe de Kouya
Turkey Bodrum peninsula
Lebanon Qadisha Valley
Niger Diffa-Kinzindi grassland and wetlands
Turkey Van Plains
Italy Nebrodi
Italy Biviere and Plain of Gela
Italy Altopiano di Campeda
North Macedonia River Raec valley
North Macedonia Pelagonia
North Macedonia Ovche Pole
North Macedonia Preod-Gjugjance
North Macedonia Gradsko-Rosoman-Negotino
North Macedonia Mariovo
North Macedonia Lake Tikvesh
Kenya Mwingi/Kitui/Makueni hilltops and River Valley Landscapes
Côte d'Ivoire Comoe National Park
Russia (European) Rychkovskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Shugurovskoye plateau
Russia (European) Sources of Akshibai river
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Sierra Leone Outamba-Kilimi National Park
Sierra Leone Outamba-Kilimi National Park
Romania Danube Delta
Mongolia Ikh Gazriin Chuluu
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Kyrgyzstan Western Alai, Kok-Suu river
Lebanon Beirut River Valley
Lebanon Jabal Moussa Mountain
Mongolia Khangain Nuruu National Park
Mongolia Khar Yamaat Nature Reserve
Mongolia Khasagt Khairkhan Mountain
Mongolia Khongil
Mongolia Khustain Nuruu National Park
Mongolia Maikhant Mountain
Mongolia Telmen Lake
Mongolia Ugtam Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
China (mainland) Karamay Mountains
Nepal Annapurna Conservation Area
Nepal Chitwan National Park
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
Nepal Mai Valley forests
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve
China (mainland) Dunhuang Nature Reserve and Western Qilian Shan mountains
Kazakhstan Big Almaty Gorge
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Spain El Temple - Lomas de Padul
Spain Llanos de Plasencia
Spain Campiñas de Santaella - Écija
Spain Campiña de Jerez - Lebrija y Marisma de Trebujena
Spain Albacete - Barrax - La Roda
Spain Campo Charro y Tierras de Ledesma
Portugal São Vicente
Portugal Torre da Bolsa
Malawi Nyika National Park (Malawi)
South Africa Kamfers Dam
South Africa Dronfield
Turkey Bodrum Peninsula
Tunisia El Jem
Turkey Acıkır Steppes
Turkey Bismil Plain
Turkey Saros Bay
Kenya Ol Ari Nyiro
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Spain Torrejón de Velasco - Secanos de Valdemoro
Spain Baja Alcarria
Croatia Kvarner Islands
Kenya Mumoni Hill Forest Reserve
Albania Gjirokastra
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Antichasia mountains and Meteora
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Mount Pilio
Greece Tymfi (Gkamila) and Smolikas mountains
Greece Central Zagori and mount Mitsikeli
Greece Valia Kalda (Pindos National Forest Park)
Greece Mount Peristeri
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Strofades islets
Greece Mount Chelmos (Aroania)
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Antikythira island and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Azerbaijan Samur Delta
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Shorgel lakes/Shirvan reserve
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Georgia Meskheti Ridge
Georgia Batumi
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains [incl Karcal Mountains]
Armenia Amasia
Armenia Gndasar
Armenia Noravank
Azerbaijan Samukh (Hunting Area)
Iran, Islamic Republic of Maku and Iran west border
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arasbaran Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e-Moghan
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Lake Boz-Koba
Iran, Islamic Republic of Mountain Sahand and Sabalan
Tanzania Masai Steppe
Italy Sicani mountains, Rocca Busambra and Ficuzza forest
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Balyktykol Lake
Afghanistan Pech and Waygal valleys
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Shcherbakty Lakes
Kazakhstan Semey Ormany (Semipalatinsk Forest)
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Turkmenistan Kurendag - Garagoz
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly
Turkmenistan Garashor
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh
Turkmenistan Garachop
Turkmenistan Tallymerjen
Turkmenistan Uzboy
Turkmenistan Garabil
Eswatini Ingwavuma (SZ)
South Africa Port Elizabeth complex
South Africa Waterford - Jansenville
South Africa Greater Addo complex
South Africa Great Fish
South Africa Camdeboo complex
South Africa Mountain Zebra National Park complex
South Africa Fort Fordyce Reserve complex
South Africa Pearston Escarpment
South Africa Katberg complex
South Africa Hogsback - Stutterheim
South Africa Queenstown highlands
South Africa Orpen
South Africa Hazyview
South Africa Bushbuckridge
South Africa Indwe - Cala - Ngcobo - Elliot
South Africa Mthatha - Tsolo
South Africa Northern Eastern Cape
South Africa Southern Drakensberg foothills
South Africa Northern Drakensberg foothills
South Africa Greater Itala complex (ZA)
South Africa Mistbelt grasslands
South Africa Midlands
South Africa Greater Greytown complex
South Africa Boston area
South Africa High Flats area
South Africa Lower Mooi River valley
South Africa Ingwavuma (ZA)
Eswatini Hlane - Mlawula complex (SZ)
Mozambique Ncomati plain
Mozambique Magude - Muomba
South Africa Bisho
South Africa Mbashe River - Coffee Bay
South Africa Melmoth
South Africa Opathe Imfolozi link
Mozambique Hlane - Mlawula complex (MZ)
South Africa Hlane - Mlawula complex (ZA)
Eswatini Greater Itala complex (SZ)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Desert Hot suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Savanna Dry suitable passage
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 3700 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Falco naumanni. Downloaded from on 16/09/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 16/09/2021.