Lesser Green Leafbird Chloropsis cyanopogon


Justification of Red List category
This forest-associated species is listed as Near Threatened because it is assumed to have experienced moderately rapid declines owing to the extensive loss of lowland forests and marginal hunting and trapping pressures from large areas of South-East Asia. It is not considered more threatened because it can use secondary and edge habitats (BirdLife International 2001, Wells 2005).

Population justification
The population size is unknown, but the species is described as common where habitat remains (del Hoyo et al. 2006, Wells 2020).

Trend justification
Rates of forest loss in the Sundaic lowlands have been extremely rapid (Kalimantan lost nearly 25% of its evergreen forest during 1985-1997, and Sumatra lost almost 30% of its 1985 cover), because of a variety of factors, including the escalation of logging and land conversion, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas, plus forest fires (particularly in 1997-1998). However, the population is suspected to have declined more slowly at a rate of 20-29% over three generations as the species can tolerate secondary habitats. Declines may also be further compounded by marginal hunting and trapping pressures (Symes et al. 2018).

Distribution and population

Chloropsis cyanopogon is restricted to the Sundaic lowlands, from south Tenasserim, Myanmar, peninsular Thailand, Singapore (scarce), Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan (including Banggi Island) and Sumatra, Indonesia and Brunei, where it is generally fairly common in forest to 700 m.


Canopy and high edge of lowland evergreen forest, including peat-swamp forest, mature and regenerating secondary forest, also fruiting trees and shrubs in clearings and high shade cover of plantations. The species can also be found occasionally in strand woodlands on coasts (Wells 2020). It occurs up to 700 m in most of its range but occasionally to 1,100 m in Malaysia. Birds in breeding condition have been recorded in February-August. It is a generalist species, with a diet that includes arthropods (including caterpillars, beetles, and flies), fruits (including figs and berries), and will occasionally utilise nectar from flowers (such as Eucalyptus sp.) (Wells 2020). 


Forest destruction in the Sundaic lowlands of Indonesia, and in Thailand and Malaysia has been extensive (Kalimantan lost nearly 25% of its evergreen forest during 1985-1997, and Sumatra lost almost 30% of its 1985 cover), but the species's ability to survive in second growth and forest edge implies that it is not immediately threatened by forest loss alone. However, the population may be further compounded by hunting and trapping pressures for the wildlife trade, although the scale of impact may be marginal (Symes et al. 2018). 

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
The species is known to occur in several protected areas, including Khao Para-Bang Khram Wildlife Sanctuary (Thailand), Danum Valley Conservation Area (Borneo), and Way Kambas National Park (Sumatra) (Wells 2020). 

Conservation Actions Proposed
Protect areas of lowland forest within the species's range. Enforce restrictions on agricultural encroachment and logging within such protected areas. Estimate population trends by calculating rates of forest loss within its range using satellite imagery and remote sensing techniques.


Text account compilers
Fernando, E.

Benstead, P. & Bird, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Chloropsis cyanopogon. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/lesser-green-leafbird-chloropsis-cyanopogon on 04/03/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 04/03/2024.