NT
Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2016 Near Threatened A2c+3c
2012 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2008 Near Threatened A3c
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status nomadic Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type continent
Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 27,700,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 46,400,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size unknown medium estimated 2005
Population trend decreasing poor suspected 1995-2042
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 20-29% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 20-29% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 20-29% - - -
Generation length 15.5 years - - -

Population justification: The global population has been estimated at c.2,220,000-3,240,000 individuals. Regional estimates include 15,000-25,000 individuals in West Africa, 1,500,000-2,500,000 in East Africa, 55,000-65,000 in South Africa and Madagascar, and 650,000 in south Asia.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing owing to habitat degradation and disturbance, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Delany and Scott 2006), thus a moderately rapid decline is suspected overall.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Afghanistan extant vagrant
Angola extant native yes
Botswana extant native yes
Burundi extant native yes
Cameroon extant native yes
Chad extant vagrant yes
Comoros extant vagrant yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the extant native yes
Djibouti extant native yes
Egypt extant vagrant
Eritrea extant native yes
Eswatini extant vagrant yes
Ethiopia extant native yes
Gabon extant native yes
Gambia extant native yes
Ghana extant vagrant yes
Guinea extant native yes
Guinea-Bissau extant native yes
India extant native yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant vagrant yes
Kenya extant native yes
Lesotho extant native yes
Madagascar extant native yes
Malawi extant native yes
Mauritania extant native yes
Mauritius extant vagrant
Morocco extant vagrant
Mozambique extant native yes
Namibia extant native yes
Niger extant vagrant yes
Nigeria extant vagrant yes
Oman extant vagrant yes
Pakistan extant native yes
Réunion (to France) extant vagrant
Rwanda extant vagrant yes
São Tomé e Príncipe extant vagrant yes
Saudi Arabia extant vagrant yes
Senegal extant native yes
Sierra Leone extant native yes
Somalia extant vagrant yes
South Africa extant native yes
Spain extant vagrant
Sri Lanka extant vagrant yes
Sudan extant uncertain yes
Tanzania extant native yes
Uganda extant native yes
United Arab Emirates extant vagrant yes
Yemen extant native yes
Zambia extant native yes
Zimbabwe extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Angola Iona National Park
Angola Quiçama
Botswana Makgadikgadi Pans
Djibouti Lac Abhé
Ethiopia Fogera plains
Ethiopia Bahir Dar - Lake Tana
Ethiopia Akaki - Aba-Samuel wetlands
Ethiopia Bishoftu lake
Ethiopia Chelekleka lake and swamp
Ethiopia Green Lake
Ethiopia Koka dam and Lake Gelila
Ethiopia Lake Langano
Ethiopia Abijatta - Shalla Lakes National Park
Ethiopia Nechisar National Park and surroundings
Ethiopia Lake Chew Bahir
Guinea Iles Tristao
Guinea Rio Kapatchez
Kenya Lake Bogoria National Reserve
Kenya Lake Elmenteita
Kenya Lake Magadi
Kenya Lake Nakuru National Park
Madagascar Bombetoka Bay - Marovoay NPA
Madagascar Mahavavy - Kinkony wetlands NPA
Madagascar Bemamba Wetland Complex
Madagascar Manambolomaty wetland complex and Tsimembo Classified Forest
Madagascar Menabe forest complex
Madagascar Lake Ihotry - Mangoky Delta Complex NPA
Madagascar Tsimanampetsotsa National Park
Madagascar Lakes Anony and Erombo
Namibia Etosha National Park
Namibia Tsumkwe pan system
Namibia Cape Cross lagoon
Namibia Namib-Naukluft Park
Namibia Mile 4 saltworks
Namibia Walvis Bay
Namibia Sandwich Harbour
Namibia Sperrgebiet
Tanzania Arusha National Park and vicinity
Tanzania Lake Manyara
Tanzania Serengeti National Park
Tanzania Ngorongoro Conservation Area
Tanzania Lake Burungi
Tanzania Lake Eyasi
Tanzania Lake Kitangire
Tanzania Nyumba ya Mungu reservoir
Tanzania Lake Natron and Engaruka basin
Tanzania Singida lakes
Tanzania Longido Game Controlled Area
Uganda Queen Elizabeth National Park and Lake George
Uganda Kyambura Wildlife Reserve
South Africa Chrissie Pans
South Africa Spitskop Dam
South Africa Sandveld and Bloemhof Dam Nature Reserves
South Africa False Bay Nature Reserve
Zambia Mweru Wantipa National Park
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
India Mahul - Sewree Creek
Zambia Sumbu National Park and Tondwa Game Management Area
Yemen Aden
South Africa Benfontein
India Bhashkarpara
Tanzania Lake Balangida Lelu
Guinea-Bissau Rio Cacheu
Guinea-Bissau Rio Mansôa and Gêba estuary
Sierra Leone Yawri Bay
Senegal Djoudj wetlands
Senegal Parc National de la Langue de Barbarie
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Mauritania Diawling National Park
South Africa iSimangaliso Wetland Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable resident
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (domestic use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - non-trivial recent
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Phoeniconaias minor. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/lesser-flamingo-phoeniconaias-minor on 20/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 20/02/2024.