NT
Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2c+3c
2012 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2008 Near Threatened A3c
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status nomadic Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 27,700,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 46,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium estimated 2005
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.5 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number 15,000-25,000 individuals in West Africa, 1,500,000-2,500,000 in East Africa, 55,000-65,000 in South Africa and Madagascar, and 650,000 in south Asia.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing owing to habitat degradation and disturbance, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Delany and Scott 2006), thus a moderately rapid decline is suspected overall.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Angola N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Chad V Extant Yes
Comoros V Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt V Extant
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Gabon N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Ghana V Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of V Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Mauritius V Extant
Morocco V Extant
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Niger V Extant Yes
Nigeria V Extant Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) V Extant
Rwanda V Extant Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes
Somalia V Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant
Sri Lanka V Extant Yes
Sudan U Extant Yes
Swaziland V Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Angola Iona National Park
Angola Quiçama
Botswana Makgadikgadi Pans
Djibouti Lac Abhé
Ethiopia Abijatta - Shalla Lakes National Park
Ethiopia Akaki - Aba-Samuel wetlands
Ethiopia Bahir Dar - Lake Tana
Ethiopia Bishoftu lake
Ethiopia Chelekleka lake and swamp
Ethiopia Fogera plains
Ethiopia Green Lake
Ethiopia Koka dam and Lake Gelila
Ethiopia Lake Chew Bahir
Ethiopia Lake Langano
Ethiopia Nechisar National Park and surroundings
Guinea Iles Tristao
Guinea Rio Kapatchez
Guinea-Bissau Rio Cacheu
Guinea-Bissau Rio Mansôa and Gêba estuary
India Bhashkarpara
India Mahul - Sewree Creek
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
Kenya Lake Bogoria National Reserve
Kenya Lake Elmenteita
Kenya Lake Magadi
Kenya Lake Nakuru National Park
Madagascar Bemamba Wetland Complex
Madagascar Bombetoka Bay - Marovoay NPA
Madagascar Lake Ihotry - Mangoky Delta Complex NPA
Madagascar Lakes Anony and Erombo
Madagascar Mahavavy - Kinkony wetlands NPA
Madagascar Manambolomaty wetland complex and Tsimembo Classified Forest
Madagascar Menabe forest complex
Madagascar Tsimanampetsotsa National Park and extension
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Mauritania Chott Boul
Mauritania Diawling National Park
Namibia Cape Cross lagoon
Namibia Etosha National Park
Namibia Mile 4 saltworks
Namibia Namib-Naukluft Park
Namibia Sandwich Harbour
Namibia Sperrgebiet
Namibia Tsumkwe pan system
Namibia Walvis Bay
Senegal Djoudj wetlands
Senegal Lac de Guiers
South Africa Chrissie Pans
South Africa False Bay Nature Reserve
South Africa Lake St Lucia and Mkuze Swamps
South Africa Richards Bay Game Reserve
South Africa Sandveld and Bloemhof Dam Nature Reserves
South Africa Spitskop Dam
Tanzania Arusha National Park and vicinity
Tanzania Lake Burungi
Tanzania Lake Eyasi
Tanzania Lake Kitangire
Tanzania Lake Manyara
Tanzania Lake Natron and Engaruka basin
Tanzania Longido Game Controlled Area
Tanzania Ngorongoro Conservation Area
Tanzania Nyumba ya Mungu reservoir
Tanzania Serengeti National Park
Tanzania Singida lakes
Uganda Kyambura Wildlife Reserve
Uganda Lake Mburo National Park
Uganda Queen Elizabeth National Park and Lake George
Zambia Mweru Wantipa National Park
Zambia Sumbu National Park and Tondwa Game Management Area

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable resident
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Phoeniconaias minor. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/12/2017.