LC
Lesser Crested Tern Thalasseus bengalensis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Thalasseus bengalensis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Sterna.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 41,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 96,100,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11 - - -

Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Delany and Scott 2006).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria N Extant
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Cambodia V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
France V Extant
French Southern Territories U Extant
Gambia N Extant
Ghana V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece V Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan V Extant
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extinct Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant
Mauritius N Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Netherlands V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories V Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant Yes
Philippines U Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Réunion (to France) U Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant
Seychelles N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Solomon Islands U Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Switzerland V Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey V Extant
Uganda V Extant
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Vietnam U Extant
Western Sahara U Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Djibouti Les Sept Frères
Egypt Hurghada archipelago
Eritrea Dehalak Archipelago and offshore islands
Kenya Sabaki River Mouth
Kenya Tana River Delta
Libya Bumbah Gulf
Libya Geziret Garah
Morocco Sebkha Bou Areg
Madagascar Cape Anorontany Archipelago NPA
Madagascar Ambavanankarana wetland
Madagascar Sahamalaza - Radama Islands National Marine Park
Madagascar Mahavavy - Kinkony wetlands NPA
Madagascar Baly Bay National Park
Madagascar Tambohorano Wetland NPA
Madagascar Wetlands of the Tsiribihina delta and upper Tsiribihina river
Madagascar Nosy Manitse Future SAPM Marine and surrounding wetlands
Mozambique Bazaruto Archipelago
Sudan Mukawwar island and Dunganab bay
Sudan Suakin archipelago
Tanzania Dar es Salaam coast
Tanzania Rufiji Delta
United Arab Emirates Qarnain Island
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kharku Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nakhilu, Morghu and Ummal Karam islands
Oman Barr al Hikman
Saudi Arabia Gulf of Salwah
Saudi Arabia Gulf coral islands
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali
Yemen Islands north of Al-Hudaydah
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast
Thailand Na Muang Krabi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bushire Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Monde Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Sheedvar island
Iran, Islamic Republic of Chahbahar Bay and Khor Konarak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Kuwait Kubbar island
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Duqm
Qatar Al-Aliyah island
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
United Arab Emirates Muhaimat Island
United Arab Emirates Khor Al Beidah
United Arab Emirates Sir Bani Yas Islands
Qatar Shara'awh island
Bahrain Hawar Islands
Australia North Brook Islands
Australia Brook Islands
Australia Cape York to Cape Grenville Islands
Australia Islands North of Port Stewart
Australia Michaelmas Cay
Australia South Barnard Islands
Australia Stapleton Island
Australia Sudbury Reef
Madagascar Cape Anorontany archipelago - Marine
Djibouti Les Sept Frères - Marine
Eritrea Dehalak Archipelago and offshore islands - Marine
Eritrea Dehalak Archipelago and offshore islands - Marine
Sudan Suakin archipelago - Marine
Sudan Mukawwar island and Dunganab bay - Marine
Egypt Hurghada archipelago - Marine
Australia Brook Islands / South Barnard Islands (Great Barrier Reef) - Marine
Australia Cape York to Cape Grenville Islands / Islands north of Port Stewart / Piper Islands / Raine Island, Moulter & Maclennan Cays (Great Barrier Reef) - Marine
Australia Islands north of Port Stewart / Stapleton Island / Wilson Reef (Great Barrier Reef) - Marine
Australia Michaelmas Cay / Sudbury Reef (Great Barrier Reef) - Marine
Libya Geziret al Elba - Ayn al Ghazalah Bay - Marine
Libya Geziret Garah - Marine
India Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park - marine
India Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park
United Arab Emirates Dayyinah Island (Diynah)
United Arab Emirates Yasat Island
India Beliapani (Cherbaniani) Island
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Guinea-Bissau Cantanhez forests

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Thalasseus bengalensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/07/2020.