Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus


BirdLife International. 2000. The Development of Boundary Selection Criteria for the Extension of Breeding Seabird Special Protection Areas into the Marine Environment. OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic. Vlissingen (Flushing).

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Burger, J., Gochfeld, M., Kirwan, G.M., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. 2018. Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (ed.), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Bustnes, J. O. 2006. Environmental pollutants in endangered vs. increasing subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull on the Norwegian Coast. Environmental Pollution 144: 893-901.

Butcher, G. S.; Niven, D. K. 2007. Combining data from the Christmas bird count and the breeding bird survey to determine the continental status and trends of North American birds.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Hario, M., Himberg, K., Hollmén, T. and Rudbäck, E. 2000. Polychlorinated biphenyls in diseased lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus fuscus) chicks from the Gulf of Finland. Environmental Pollution 107(1): 53-60.

Hume, R.; Pearson, B. 1993. Seabirds. Hamlyn, London.

Mitchell, P. I.; Newton, S. F.; Ratcliffe, N.; Dunn, T.E. 2004. Seabird populations of Britain and Ireland. Christopher Helm, London.

Olsen, K. M.; Larsson, H. 2003. Gulls of Europe, Asia and North America. Christopher Helm, London.

Richards, A. 1990. Seabirds of the northern hemisphere. Dragon's World Ltd, Limpsfield, U.K.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Urban, E.K.; Fry, C.H.; Keith, S. 1986. The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos, videos and sounds of this species in the Internet Bird Collection.

Media resources
Arkive species - Lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus) 0

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Larus fuscus. Downloaded from on 11/12/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 11/12/2018.