LC
Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 153,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 153,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13.9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at 940,000-2,070,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 394,000-460,000 pairs, which equates to 788,000-920,000 mature individuals or 1,200,000-1,400,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations are decreasing or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). The population trend is increasing in North America (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina V Extant
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia U Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Bahamas V Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Barbados N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba V Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic V Extant
Ecuador V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Equatorial Guinea U Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia V Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan V Extant
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Malawi N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Namibia V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Panama V Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant Yes
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Estonia Abruka island
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Portugal Berlenga and Farilhões islands
Romania Lake Taşaul
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Ireland Blasket Islands
Ireland Magharee Islands, Mucklaghmore and Illaunbarnagh
Ireland Inishglora and Inishkeeragh
Ireland Lough Gara
Ireland Saltee Islands
Iceland Myrarnar
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Gnäggen Island
Sweden Bonden Island
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Slowinski National Park
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Luknajno lake
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat
Netherlands Duinen Ameland
Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog
Netherlands Rottumerplaat
Netherlands Rottumeroog
Netherlands Veerse Meer
Netherlands Duinen en Lage Land Texel
Netherlands Duinen Vlieland
Netherlands Zwanenwater & Pettemerduinen
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Finland Föglö southern archipelago
Finland Lågskär-Nyhamn
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Ruissalo
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Kukkiajärvi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Lake Pihlajavesi
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Outokumpu and Kaavi oligotrophic lakes
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Uusikaarlepyy archipelago
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Kitka lake
Finland Krunnit archipelago
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Russia (European) Koporski Bay
Russia (European) Valaamski archipelago
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye
Russia (European) South-eastern coast of Lake Ladoga
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula
Russia (European) Kivach Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Solovetski Archipelago and Zjizjginski island
Russia (European) Onega Bay of the White Sea
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Eo river estuary-Barayo beach-Ría de Foz
Spain Ribadesella-Tina Mayor
Spain Alborán island
Spain Fuente de Piedra, Gosque and Campillos lakes
Spain Cádiz bay
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Cíes islands
Spain Costa da Morte
Spain Plasencia and San Bernabé mountain range
Spain Sotavento beach
Spain Coast between Arinaga and Castillo del Romeral
Ukraine Cape Martiyan
Ukraine Lyman lake
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Domaine d'Orx
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Littoral Augeron
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Bonne Anse
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Marais de Brière
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Falaise du Bessin
France Iles Saint Marcouf
France Iles Chausey
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Archipel des Sept-Iles
France Archipel de Molène
France Cap Sizun
France Archipel des Glénan
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Ile d'Ouessant
France Cap Frehel
France Presqu'île de Crozon, Tas de Pois et Rochers du Toulinguet
France Cap Fagnet
France Ile de la Platière
United Kingdom Ailsa Craig
United Kingdom Bowland Fells
United Kingdom Buchan Ness to Collieston Coast
United Kingdom Caithness Cliffs
United Kingdom Cape Wrath
United Kingdom Coquet Island
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Calf of Eday
United Kingdom Fair Isle
United Kingdom Farne Islands
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Flannan Isles
United Kingdom Firth of Forth Islands
United Kingdom Foula
United Kingdom Fowlsheugh
United Kingdom Glannau Aberdaron and Ynys Enlli
United Kingdom Glannau Ynys Gybi/Holy Island Coast
United Kingdom Grassholm
United Kingdom Hermaness, Saxa Vord and Valla Field
United Kingdom Isles of Scilly
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mingulay and Berneray
United Kingdom Monach Islands
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Mousa
United Kingdom North Rona and Sula Sgeir
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Papa Westray (North Hill and Holm)
United Kingdom Peak District Moors
United Kingdom Pembrokeshire Cliffs
United Kingdom Pentland Firth Islands
United Kingdom Priest Island
United Kingdom Rathlin Island
United Kingdom Rum
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Sanda Island
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Shiant Isles
United Kingdom Skokholm and Skomer
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom St Abbs Head to Fast Castle
United Kingdom St Kilda
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Sule Skerry and Sule Stack
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Treshnish Isles
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and the Skerries
United Kingdom Almorness Point and Hestan Island
United Kingdom Auskerry
United Kingdom Canna and Sanday
United Kingdom Cardigan Island
United Kingdom Correen Hills
United Kingdom Faray and Holm of Faray
United Kingdom Gigha Island and Islets
United Kingdom Horse Island
United Kingdom Little Cumbrae Island
United Kingdom Rothiesholm Peninsula, Stronsay
United Kingdom South Walls and Switha
United Kingdom Tips of Corsemaul and Tom Mor
United Kingdom Calf of Man
United Kingdom Isle of Man Sea Cliffs
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Gibraltar (to UK) Strait of Gibraltar
Romania Black Sea
Denmark Stavnsfjord and adjacent waters
Denmark Hirsholmene
Denmark Nordre Rønner
Denmark Ørkenen and Totten (Anholt Island)
Georgia Kolkheti
Ireland Inishtrahull
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Kjørholmane seabird reserve
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Skjernøy, South Skerries
Norway Sklinna
Norway Runde
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Germany Schwalm-Nette-Platte and Grenzwald
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Gambia Tanji River (Karinti) Bird Reserve
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla
Morocco Dakhla area
Mauritania Cap Blanc
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Senegal Delta du Saloum
Denmark Northwestern Kattegat
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Salalah Bird Sanctuary
Oman Masirah island
Yemen Abdullah Gharib lagoons
Russia (European) Southern coast of the Neva bay
Russia (European) North-western subburbs of St.-Petersburg
Russia (European) Dolgy Reef and Bol'shoi Fiskar archipelagos
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Vaindloo island
Estonia Lõu bay
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Galata
Portugal Albufeira do Caia
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Baie de Vilaine
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France La Dombes
France Pointe de Grave
France Ilôts de Trévorc'h
France Marais salants de Noirmoutier
Canada Quoddy Region
Canada Wildwood Gull Roost
Bahrain Tubli Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hormoz island
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khor Jask
Kuwait Ad-Doha Nature Reserve
Kuwait Dawhat Kazima
Oman Ra's as Sawadi - Juzor as Sawadi
Oman Khawr Ghawi
Saudi Arabia Gulf of Salwah
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Sabkhat al-Fasl lagoons
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Oman Duqm
Antigua and Barbuda McKinnons Salt Pond
Bahamas Gilliam Bay
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Khawr Shinas and Khawr Liwa
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Sweden Archipelago of Nothern Hälsingland
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays
Kenya Tana River Delta
Ireland Ballymacoda
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Kevo
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Denmark Jammerbugten
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Alfsee
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Lower Saxonian North Sea off the East Frisian Islands
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Federseeried
Ireland Lough Derg (Donegal)
Ireland Inishbofin, Inisdooey and Inisbeg
Ireland West Donegal coast
Ireland Inishmurray
Ireland Inishkea Islands
Ireland Lough Mask
Ireland Inishbofin and Inishshark (including Davillaun)
Ireland Illaunonearaun
Ireland Puffin Island
Ireland The Skelligs: Great Skellig and Little Skellig
Ireland Lambay Island
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Malopolska Wisla river gap
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Cape Busto-Luanco
Portugal Berlengas
Iceland Midnesheidi
France Jaudy et Sept-Iles
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Väinameri
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Senegal Northern Senegal shelf break
Mauritania Canary current shelf-break South
Morocco Canary current shelf-break North
Netherlands Outer Banks
Netherlands Frisian Front
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Delta Coast
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Kop van Schouwen
Norway Froan
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Mauritania Chott Boul
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Kazakhstan Balyktykol Lake
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Sweden Coastal area of Oskarshamn
Sweden Kalmar – Pataholm
Senegal Delta du Saloum - marine

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Larus fuscus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/07/2020.