Least Tern Sternula antillarum


Audubon Florida. 2017. Gravel Rooftops Can Be a Safe Place for Least Terns to Call Home. Available at: (Accessed: 24.07.18).

Brubeck, M.; Thompson, B.; Slack, R. 1981. The effects of trapping, banding, and patagial tagging on the parental behavior of Least Terns in Texas. Colonial Waterbirds 4: 54-60.

Butcher, G. S.; Niven, D. K. 2007. Combining data from the Christmas bird count and the breeding bird survey to determine the continental status and trends of North American birds.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Farnsworth, J.M.; Baasch, D.M.; Smith, C.B.; Werbylo, K.L. 2017. Reproductive ecology of interior least tern and piping plover in relation to Platte River hydrology and sandbar dynamics. Ecology and evolution 7(10): 3579-3589.

Gochfeld, M;, Burger, J.; Garcia, E.F.J. 2018. Least Tern (Sternula antillarum). Bacelona Available at: (Accessed: 17/08/2018).

Mendillo, K. A. 2009. A multi-level study of human recreational activity and Least Tern (Sterna antillarum) responses: hatching success, behavioral responses, and stress hormone levels. New Brunswick Graduate School.

Warraich, T.; Zambrano, R.; Wright, E. 2012. First records of Least Terns nesting on non-gravel roofs. Southeastern Naturalist 11(4): 775-778.

Further resources

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Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Sternula antillarum. Downloaded from on 07/02/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 07/02/2023.