LC
Least Tern Sternula antillarum



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Sternula antillarum (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Sterna.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 18,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 9,890,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.7 - - -

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations are increasing or have unknown trends (Delany and Scott 2006). In North America, this species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Bahamas N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belize N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant
Canada N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador V Extant
El Salvador N Extant
French Guiana N Extant
Grenada V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Nicaragua U Extant
Panama N Extant
Peru N Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Martin (to France) N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Suriname N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Colombia Ciénaga Grande, Isla de Salamanca and Sabana Grande RAMSAR biosphere reserve
Colombia Reserva de Biósfera Seaflower
Jamaica Yallahs
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Fish Ponds and Crossing Place Trail, Middle Caicos
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) North, Middle and East Caicos Ramsar Site
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) East Caicos and adjacent areas
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Grand Turk Salinas and Shores
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Salt Cay Creek and Salinas
Bahamas Grog Pond
St Kitts and Nevis Ponds of the Southeast Peninsula
St Martin (to France) Grand Etang
Puerto Rico (to USA) Salinas de Punta Cucharas
St Vincent and the Grenadines Ashton Wetland
Bahamas Sandy Point
Bahamas Gambier Lake
Bahamas Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park
Bahamas Guana Cays
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays
Bahamas Low Cay, High Cay and Sandy Hook
Bahamas Cay Lobos
Bahamas Booby Island
Guadeloupe (to France) Pointe des Châteaux
Virgin Islands (to UK) Anegada: Western salt ponds and coastal areas
Guadeloupe (to France) îlets de la Petite-Terre
Guadeloupe (to France) Digue du port de pêche de Saint-François (de-listed on 17/12/2014)
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Klein Bonaire, Bonaire
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Lac Bay, Bonaire
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Pelkermeer Saltworks, Bonaire
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Washikemba - Fontein - Onima, Bonaire
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Washington-Slagbaai National Park, Bonaire
Antigua and Barbuda McKinnons Salt Pond
Antigua and Barbuda Valley Church Bay
Antigua and Barbuda Potworks Dam
Antigua and Barbuda Bethesda Dam
Antigua and Barbuda Offshore Islands
Cuba Delta del Cauto
Cuba Cayería Centro - Oriental de Villa Clara
Cuba Cayo Sabinal, Ballenatos y Manglares de la Bahía de Nuevitas
Bahamas Gilliam Bay
Bahamas Cat Island Wetlands
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Eastpoint, Curaçao
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Klein Curaçao, Curaçao
Dominican Republic Jaragua National Park
Anguilla (to UK) Dog Island
Anguilla (to UK) Scrub Island
Virgin Islands (to USA) Great Pond
Virgin Islands (to USA) Southgate and Green Cay
Anguilla (to UK) Cove Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Long Salt Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Prickly Pear (East and West)
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Sint Jorisbaai-Koraal Tabak, Curaçao
Anguilla (to UK) Grey Pond
Aruba (to Netherlands) San Nicolas Bay Reef Islands
Cayman Islands (to UK) Central Mangrove Wetland
Cayman Islands (to UK) Crown Wetlands
Curaçao (to Netherlands) North-east Curaçao parks and coast, Curaçao
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Jan Thiel Lagoon, Curaçao
Jamaica Black River Great Morass
Jamaica Font Hill
Mexico Humedales Costeros del Norte de la Península de Yucatán
Mexico Yum Balám
Mexico Ría Lagartos
French Guiana Amana
French Guiana Littoral
French Guiana Littoral Sinnamary
French Guiana Littoral Kourou
French Guiana Littoral Macouria
French Guiana Ile de Cayenne
French Guiana Plaine Kaw et Pointe Béhague
USA Camp Pendleton
USA Mission Bay - San Diego River Estuary
USA Orange Coast Wetlands
USA San Diego Bay - South
USA Barrier Island/Lagoon System
Bahamas Great Isaac Cay
Mexico Istmo de Tehuantepec - Mar Muerto
Colombia Reserva de Biosfera RAMSAR Ciénaga Grande, Isla de Salamanca y Sabana Grande - Marine
French Guiana Amana - Marine
French Guiana Littoral Iracoubo - Marine
French Guiana Littoral Kourou - Marine
French Guiana Connétable - Marine
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Caicos Bank Southern Cays / East Caicos and adjacent areas / Turks Bank Seabird Cays - Marine
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays - Marine
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Eastpoint, Curaçao - Marine
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Klein Curaçao, Curaçao - Marine
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Sint Jorisbaai-Koraal Tabak, Curaçao - Marine
USA Accabonac Harbor
USA North San Diego Lagoons
Anguilla (to UK) Cauls Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Road Salt Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Meads Bay Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Rendezvous Bay Pond
Mexico Bahía Todos Santos
Mexico Bahía de Ceuta - Cospita
Mexico Istmo de Tehuantepec
Mexico Estero Santa Cruz
Mexico Estero Cardonal
Mexico Laguna de Tamiahua
Mexico Estero del Soldado
Mexico Estero Lobos
Mexico Área San Quintín
Mexico Isla Contoy
Mexico Laguna de Manialtepec
Mexico Bahía e Islas de San Jorge

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic marginal resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Sternula antillarum. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2021.