LC
Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 41,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 27,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Stable estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.1 - - -

Trend justification: This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Bahamas N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belize N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bolivia N Extant
Brazil N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
French Guiana N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant
Guatemala N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Iceland V Extant
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco V Extant
Nicaragua N Extant
Panama N Extant
Paraguay N Extant
Peru N Extant
Portugal V Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Suriname N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) V Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada Long Point Peninsula and Marshes
Canada Dundas Valley and Dundas Marsh
Canada Greater Rondeau Area
Canada Eastern Lake St. Clair
Canada Pelee Island Natural Areas
Canada Wye Marsh
Canada St. Mary's River Complex (Echo Bay ON to Maxton Bay MI)
Canada Tiny Marsh
Canada Pittock Reservoir
Canada Matchedash Bay
Canada Carden Plain
Canada Luther Marsh
Canada Nicolet et Baie-du-Fèbvre
Canada Réserve faunique de Plaisance
Canada Marais de Saint-Timothée
Canada Marais de Saint-Étienne
Canada Canal de Beauharnois
St Vincent and the Grenadines Ashton Wetland
St Vincent and the Grenadines Mustique Island
Bahamas Stafford Creek to Andros Town
Jamaica Black River Great Morass
Mexico Delta del Río Colorado
Guyana Crane Pond- Rupununi River
Jamaica Font Hill
Mexico Bahía de Ceuta - Cospita

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 3100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Ixobrychus exilis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2021.