Lear's Macaw Anodorhynchus leari


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- B2ab(iii) B2ab(iii); D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Endangered B2ab(iii)
2016 Endangered B1ab(iii)
2013 Endangered B1ab(iii)
2012 Endangered B1ab(iii)
2009 Endangered B1a+b(iii)
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 31,200 medium
Number of locations 2 -
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals 250-999 medium estimated 2018
Population trend increasing medium observed 1978-2009
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (years) 10.4 - - -

Population justification: The most recent population estimate is of 1,694 individuals in 2018 (ICMBio 2018). A study in 2010 found that 20.3% of individuals were reproductively active (Pacifico et al. 2014). The population is therefore placed in the band 250-999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species underwent a long-term historical decline due to trapping, but population estimates remained fairly stable following its rediscovery in the wild in 1978 until the mid 1990s, when numbers began to increase rapidly. While this may partly reflect improvements in survey methodology, there also has been a genuine population increase owing to intensive conservation efforts.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brazil extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Brazil Raso da Catarina
Brazil Sento Sé / Campo Formoso

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Altitude 400 - 800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Medium Impact: 6
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Anodorhynchus leari. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/lears-macaw-anodorhynchus-leari on 26/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 26/09/2023.