EN
Lear's Macaw Anodorhynchus leari



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- B1ab(iii) B1ab(iii);D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered B1ab(iii)
2013 Endangered B1ab(iii)
2012 Endangered B1ab(iii)
2009 Endangered B1a+b(iii)
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,900 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 12,400 medium
Number of locations 2 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250-999 medium estimated 2010
Population trend Unknown medium not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.4 - - -

Population justification: The most recent population estimate is of 1,263 birds. Although the population is growing and thus this figure is likely to include a large proportion of sub-adults, the total number of mature individuals is thought to be at least 228, and so the population is placed in the band 250-999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: It underwent a long-term historical decline due to trapping, but population estimates remained fairly stable following its rediscovery in the wild in 1978 until the mid 1990s when numbers began to increase rapidly; while this may partly reflect improvements in survey methodology, there also has been a genuine increase owing to intensive conservation efforts.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brazil N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Brazil Raso da Catarina
Brazil Sento Sé / Campo Formoso

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Altitude 400 - 800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines
Stresses
Species mortality
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Very Rapid Declines
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Anodorhynchus leari. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/05/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/05/2019.