VU
Leach's Storm-petrel Hydrobates leucorhous



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Hydrobates leucorhous has been split into H. leucorhous, H. socorroensis and H. cheimomnestes (which see) (Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International 2018), based on the proposal of Howell (2012).

Taxonomic source(s)
Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2018. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 3. Available at: http://datazone.birdlife.org/userfiles/file/Species/Taxonomy/HBW-BirdLife_Checklist_v3_Nov18.zip.
Howell, N. G. 2012. Petrels, Albatrosses, and Storm-Petrels of North America: A Photographic Guide. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2bce+3bce+4bce

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable A2bce+3bce+4bce
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 37 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 337,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6700000-8300000 medium estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-40 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-40 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -

Population justification: Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to number >20,000,000 individuals.  Based on the compilation of available data the current population comprises 6.7-8.3 million breeding pairs; 40-48% of these breed in the Atlantic basin and 52-60% in the Pacific. Throughout the western Atlantic (>90% of basin total), populations are declining, including at Baccalieu Island, Newfoundland, Canada, home to the largest colony. The population at Baccalieu Island, estimated at 3.3 million breeding pairs in 1984 (Sklepkovych and Montevecchi 1989), had declined to 2.02 million pairs by 2013 (Environment Canada unpublished data), and the former second and third regionally largest colonies have declined by >50% since the late 1990s (Wilhelm et al. 2015, Environment Canada unpublished data). In the eastern Atlantic, the population at St. Kilda is also declining, this being the largest colony in the UK and Ireland (Newson et al. 2008).  Population trends in the Pacific are less well known. In Alaska, where Leach’s Hydrobates leucorhous and Fork-tailed Storm-petrels H. furactus are largely combined for monitoring purposes, population trends are stable or increasing (Slater and Byrd 2009, Dragoo et al. 2016), the large population at Daikoku Island, Japan may have declined since 1982, while trends of western North American and Russian populations are unknown. Despite these knowledge gaps, compiling available data collected between 1977 and 2016, representing 75-80% of the global population (including Europe, eastern North America, and Japan), points to a decline of ≥30% over three generations (39 years, based on a generation length estimated by BirdLife to be 13 years).

Definitive information on Leach’s Storm-petrel population decline comes mainly from colonies within the Atlantic basin.  Recent genetics research indicates that while there is no genetic structure among Atlantic colonies, populations within the Atlantic and the Pacific are genetically distinct (Bicknell et al. 2012).  Evidence of movement of pre-breeding birds among colonies within the Atlantic, led to the conclusion that North Atlantic birds may be operating as a metapopulation and that management of this species may be best viewed at an oceanic scale (Bicknell et al. 2012, 2014).

Trend justification: Data collected from 1977 to 2016 representing 75-80% of the global population, points to a decline of ≥30% over three generations (Huntingdon et al. 1996, Lormee et al. 2012, BirdLife International 2015, Environment Canada unpublished data, Japanese Ministry of Environment, unpublished data). The cause(s) of declines are unknown, but are likely multi-faceted and further research is needed to inform conservation actions.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria V Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) U Extant
Antarctica V Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Australia V Extant
Austria V Extant
Bahamas N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belgium V Extant
Belize U Extant
Benin U Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Brazil N Extant Yes
Cameroon U Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Cape Verde N Extant Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) U Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Colombia U Extant
Congo U Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the U Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire U Extant
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt V Extant
El Salvador U Extant
Equatorial Guinea U Extant
Estonia V Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes
French Guiana N Extant
French Polynesia N Extant
French Southern Territories U Extant
Gabon U Extant
Gambia V Extant
Germany V Extant
Ghana V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Grenada U Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea U Extant
Guinea-Bissau U Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy V Extant
Jamaica V Extant
Japan N Extant
Kenya V Extant
Kiribati N Extant
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Maldives V Extant
Malta V Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of U Extant
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nauru U Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand V Extant
Nicaragua U Extant
Nigeria U Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Panama U Extant
Peru U Extant
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe U Extant
Senegal N Extant
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone V Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant
South Africa N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Martin (to France) N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan V Extant Yes
Suriname N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Togo U Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Tuvalu U Extant
United Arab Emirates U Extant
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Uruguay V Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara U Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Mykines and Mykineshólmur
Iceland Vestmannaeyjar
Ireland Rathlin O'Birne
Ireland Stags of Broadhaven
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Cap Gris-nez
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
United Kingdom Flannan Isles
United Kingdom Foula
United Kingdom North Rona and Sula Sgeir
United Kingdom Ramna Stacks and Gruney
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom St Kilda
United Kingdom North Sutherland Coastal Islands
United Kingdom Isle of Man Sea Cliffs
Norway Røst
Norway Runde
Norway Sklinna
South Africa Dassen Island
Canada Scott Island Group
Canada Duke of Edinburgh Ecological Reserve
Canada Lepas Bay Islet
Canada Hippa Island
Canada Anthony Island
Canada Tian Bay/Port Louis Area
Canada Englefield Bay Islands
Canada Cleland Island and Southeast Clayoquot Sound
Canada Kyuquot Channel Islets
Canada Checleset Bay
Canada Solander Island and Brooks Bay
Canada Gillam Island
Canada Moore and Byers Islands and Banks
Canada Rankine and Langtry Islands
Canada Skincuttle Inlet Islands
Canada Alder Island
Canada Ramsay and Northern Juan Perez Sound Islands
Canada Gannet Islands
Canada Machias Seal Island
Canada Witless Bay Islands
Canada Baccalieu Island
Canada Wadham Islands and adjacent Marine Area
Canada Corbin Island
Canada Middle Lawn Island
Canada Green Island
Canada Bird Islands
Canada Bon Portage Island
Canada Sable Island, Nova Scotia
Canada Country Island Complex
Canada Bonaventure Island
Canada Île Brion
Canada Îles Sainte-Marie
Canada Baie des Loups
Canada Corossol Island
Japan Daikoku islet
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir)
Trinidad and Tobago Soldado Rock
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Grand Colombier Island
USA Buldir Island
USA Chagulak Island
United Kingdom Eilean Hoan
USA Farallon Islands
USA Umnak Pass Colonies
USA Goat Island NWR
USA Mack Reef
USA Kigul Islets Colonies
USA Whalehead Island NWR
Morocco Canary current shelf-break (north)
USA Buldir Island Colony
USA Cherni Island Complex Colonies
USA Forrester Island Colonies
USA Semidi Islands Colonies
USA St Lazaria Island Colony
USA Ugamak Strait Colonies
USA Castle Rock
USA Trinidad Complex
USA Hunter's Island
Mauritania Canary current shelf-break (south)
Japan Eastern Hokkaido - Marine

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Mus musculus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Catharacta skua Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Larus argentatus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Hydrobates leucorhous. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/05/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/05/2022.