EN
Lappet-faced Vulture Torgos tracheliotos



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd; C1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Endangered A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd
2016 Endangered A2bcd+3bcd
2015 Endangered A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2012 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2008 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 34,200,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6500 medium estimated 1992
Population trend Decreasing poor estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 52-71 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 52-71 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 14.69 - - -

Population justification: Data from Mundy et al. (1992) suggest the African population is at least 8,000 individuals, equating to c.5,330 mature individuals. National estimates for Africa include 160-500 individuals in Uganda (Pomeroy et al. 2015), 150-200 pairs in South Africa (Barnes 2000), c.2,000 individuals in Tanzania (Shimelis et al. 2005), 300 pairs in Zimbabwe (Boshoff et al. 1997), 400-500 pairs in Ethiopia (Shimelis et al. 2005), 10-20 pairs in Egypt (Shimelis et al. 2005) and 500 pairs in Namibia (Simmons and Brown, cited in Shimelis et al. 2005). There are an estimated 600 pairs in the Arabian Peninsula (Jennings 2010, cited in Botha et al. 2017). The total population is therefore estimated to be least 9,200 individuals, of which c.6530 are mature individuals, although this may prove to be an overestimate given current trends for this species.

Trend justification: The global population is estimated to be declining at a very rapid rate. Ogada et al. (2016) estimated the population in Africa was declining by 3.5% per year. equating to a decline of 79% over three generations (44.07 years [Bird et al. 2020]) (range: 64-87%). Recent surveys of raptor populations in  northern Botswana support this rate of decline, with a decline of 61% between 1991-1995 and 2015-2016 for this species (Garbett et al. 2018), equating to a decline of 84% over three generations. Assuming a stable population of 1,200 mature individuals in Arabia, and a population of 5,330 mature individuals in Africa in 1992 declining at a rate of 79% over three generations, the global decline is estimated to be 64.5% over three generations (range: 52-71%).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria V Extant Yes
Angola N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Burundi V Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Chad N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Equatorial Guinea V Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Israel N Extinct Yes
Jordan N Extinct Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Libya V Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Mali N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Palestine N Extinct Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes Yes Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Syria N Possibly Extinct
Tanzania N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Togo V Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
Western Sahara U Extinct
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
South Africa Zululand
United Arab Emirates Jebel Hafeet
Israel Judean desert
Israel Northern Arava valley
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Jordan Dana
Jordan Wadi Araba
Oman Jabal al Akhdar
Palestine Jerusalem wilderness
Saudi Arabia Mahazat as-Sayd
Saudi Arabia At-Tubayq
Syria Tadmur desert and mountains
Syria Jabal Sis
Yemen Desert west of Al-Ghayda
Uganda Kyambura Wildlife Reserve
Jordan Shaumari
Zambia Simungoma
Zambia Mbulo Forest
Zambia Sumbu National Park and Tondwa Game Management Area
Zambia Lusenga Plain National Park
Zambia Mutinondo Wilderness
Zambia Lower Zambezi National Park
Zambia Mutulanganga
Zambia North Luangwa National Park
Burundi Kigwena Forest Nature Reserve
South Africa Kalahari-Gemsbok National Park
Côte d'Ivoire Comoe National Park
South Africa Phongolo Nature Reserve
Senegal Dindefello Natural Reserve
South Africa Dronfield
South Africa Benfontein
Niger Termit Mountains
Kenya Lolldaiga-Mukogodo-Ewaso N'yiro
Kenya Nairobi National Park
United Arab Emirates Dubai Desert
United Arab Emirates Al Marmoom Desert
Senegal Delta du Saloum
South Africa Palaborwa
South Africa Orpen
South Africa Hazyview
South Africa Bushbuckridge
South Africa Northern Eastern Cape
Mozambique Licuati Forests and Eastern Swazi Lebombo (MZ)
Eswatini Hlane - Mlawula complex (SZ)
Mozambique Maputo Special Reserve
Mozambique Namaacha (MZ)
Mozambique Crocodile River
Mozambique Ncomati plain
Mozambique Magude - Muomba
Eswatini Big Bend - Manzini - Hlathikulu
South Africa Melmoth
South Africa Opathe Imfolozi link
South Africa Hluhluwe - Mkhuze lowveld
South Africa Pongola - Magudu
South Africa Ponta do Ouro (ZA)
Eswatini Licuati Forests and Eastern Swazi Lebombo (SZ)
South Africa Licuati Forests and Eastern Swazi Lebombo (ZA)
Mozambique Hlane - Mlawula complex (MZ)
South Africa Hlane - Mlawula complex (ZA)
South Africa Namaacha (ZA)
Eswatini Namaacha (SZ)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Desert Hot suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Savanna Dry major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 3500 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 4500 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality, Other
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Other
Other options Other threat Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Other
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Medicine - human & veterinary - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Torgos tracheliotos. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2022.