Lapland Longspur Calcarius lapponicus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 38,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 53,800,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50000000-199999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend increasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.150,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004). The European population is estimated at 5,340,000-12,700,000 pairs, which equates to 10,700,000-25,300,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 15% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 71,000,000-169,000,000 mature individuals, placed in the range 50,000,000-199,999,999 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population trend showed a moderate decline between 1980 and 2013 (EBCC 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria extant vagrant
Austria extant native yes
Belarus extant native yes
Belgium extant native yes
Bermuda (to UK) extant vagrant
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant vagrant
Bulgaria extant vagrant
Canada extant native yes yes
China (mainland) extant native
Croatia extant vagrant
Czechia extant vagrant
Denmark extant native yes yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) extant native yes
Finland extant native yes yes
France extant native yes
Germany extant native yes
Greenland (to Denmark) extant native yes
Hungary extant native yes
Iceland extant native
Ireland extant native
Italy extant native
Japan extant native
Kazakhstan extant native
Latvia extant native
Lithuania extant native yes
Malta extant vagrant
Mexico extant native
Mongolia extant native
Montenegro extant vagrant
Netherlands extant native yes
North Korea extant native
Norway extant native yes
Poland extant native yes
Portugal extant vagrant
Romania extant native yes
Russia extant native yes yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes
Serbia extant vagrant
Slovakia extant native yes
South Korea extant native
Spain extant native yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) extant native yes yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) extant vagrant
Sweden extant native yes
Switzerland extant vagrant
Turkey extant vagrant
Ukraine extant native yes
United Kingdom extant native yes
USA extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Kevo
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Norway Dovrefjell
Norway Hardangervidda
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Norway Reisa
Norway Slettnes
Norway Varanger Peninsula
Russia (Asian) Gusikha river basin and lower Balakhnya river
Russia (Asian) Kanchalan river basin
Russia (Asian) Lower Nizhnyaya Taymyra river
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay
Russia (Asian) Preobrazheniya island
Russia (Asian) Utkholok river
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of headwaters of the river Schuchya
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Middle reaches of Bolshaya Rogovaya river
Sweden Middagsfjället – Dörrshöjden
Sweden Tavvavouma

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Grassland Tundra major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Calcarius lapponicus. Downloaded from on 31/05/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 31/05/2023.