Lapland Longspur Calcarius lapponicus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 38,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 53,800,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50000000-199999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.150,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004). The European population is estimated at 5,340,000-12,700,000 pairs, which equates to 10,700,000-25,300,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 15% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 71,000,000-169,000,000 mature individuals, placed in the range 50,000,000-199,999,999 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population trend showed a moderate decline between 1980 and 2013 (EBCC 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Bulgaria V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia V Extant
Czechia V Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant
Ireland N Extant
Italy N Extant
Japan N Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant
Latvia N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Mexico N Extant
Mongolia N Extant
Montenegro V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland V Extant
Turkey V Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Sweden Tavvavouma
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Alajoki
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Kevo
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Russia (European) Middle reaches of Bolshaya Rogovaya river
Russia (European) Yugyd Va
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Lyman lake
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
United Kingdom Broadland
Norway Varangerfjord
Germany Hellwegbörde
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of headwaters of the river Schuchya
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Canada Twin Islands
Canada Holiday Beach / Big Creek CA
Canada Netitishi Point
Canada Shallow Bay, Big Slough and Swan Lake
Canada M'Clintock Bay to Lewes River Marsh
Canada Tagish Narrows
Canada Nares Lake
Sweden Middagsfjället – Dörrshöjden
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river
Norway Dovrefjell
Norway Varanger Peninsula
Norway Slettnes
Norway Hardangervidda
Norway Andøya (including Skogvoll)
Norway Iešjávri
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Norway Reisa

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Grassland Tundra major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Calcarius lapponicus. Downloaded from on 23/05/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 23/05/2022.