Lanner Falcon Falco biarmicus


Binothman, M. 2016. Current Status of Falcon Populations in Saudi Arabia. Natural Resource Management, South Dakota State University.

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., ?ekercio?lu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13486.

BirdLife International. In prep.. European Red List of Birds. Deliverable to the European Commission (DG Environment) in 2021 under Service Contract ENV.D.3/SER/2018/0018.

Corso, A. 2018. Updated status of European Lanner Falcon, Falco biarmicus feldeggii (Schlegel, 1843) (Aves Falconiformes): a taxon on the verge of extinction, with brief comments on the North African Lanner, F. biarmicus erlangeri (Kleinschimdt, 1901). Biodiversity Journal 9(1): 35-44.

De Rosa, D., Di Febbraro, M., De Lisio, L., De Sanctis, A. and Loy, A. 2019. The decline of the lanner falcon in Mediterranean landscapes: competition displacement or habitat loss? Animal Conservation 22: 24-34.

del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J. (eds). 1994. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 2: New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Di Vittorio, M., E. Di Trapani, S. Cacopardi, G. Rannisi, A. Falci, A. Ciaccio, A. Sarto, S. Merlino, M. Zafarana, S. Grenci, G. Salvo, M. Lo Valvo, A. Scuderi, L. Murabito, G. La Grua, G. Cortone, N. Patti, L. Luiselli & P. López-López. 2017. Population size and breeding performance of the Lanner Falcon Falco biarmicus in Sicily: conservation implications. Bird Study 64(3): 339-343.

Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. 2001. Raptors of the World. Christopher Helm, London.

Global Raptor Information Network. 2015. Species account: Lanner Falcon Falco biarmicus. Available at: (Accessed: 09/07/2015).

Gustin, M., Palumbo, G. and Corso, A. 2000. International Action Plan for the Lanner Falcon Falco biarmicus. BirdLife International.

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. Available at: (Accessed: 09 December 2021).

Keller, V., Herrando, S., Vo?íšek, P., Franch, M., Kipson, M., Milanesi, P., Martí, D., Anton, M., Klva?ová, A., Kalyakin, M.V., Bauer, H.-G. and Foppen, R.P.B. 2020. European Breeding Bird Atlas 2: Distribution, Abundance and Change. European Bird Census Council & Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Kemp, A.C. 1994. Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Snow, D.W. and Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

STRIX. 2012. Developing and testing the methodology for assessing and mapping the sensitivity of migratory birds to wind energy development. BirdLife International, Cambridge.

Thiollay, J.-M. 2006. The decline of raptors in West Africa: long-term assessment and the role of protected areas. Ibis 148: 240-254.

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

International Action Plan

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Falco biarmicus. Downloaded from on 26/03/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/03/2023.