LC
Lanner Falcon Falco biarmicus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 42,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 18,200,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.4 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 430-840 pairs, which equates to 850-1,700 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms a very small proportion of the global range (approximately 1%).

Trend justification: The species has suffered slight declines locally owing to persecution and collecting of eggs and chicks for falconry (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by at least 20% in 12.8 years (two generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
Congo V Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant Yes
Czech Republic V Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
France V Extant Yes
Gabon V Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant Yes
Qatar U Extant
Romania V Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes
Slovakia V Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Swaziland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinous gorge
Greece Central Rodos and the areas of Lindos, Mesanagros and Katavia-Prassonisi
Greece Kalamaki gorge-Mount Zarkou
Greece Kerketion mountain (Koziakas)
Greece Mavrovouni mountain, Larissa
Greece Mount Asterousia (Kofinas)
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Mounts Kato Olympos and Ossa, and Tembi ravine
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Rodopos peninsula
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands
Israel Judean desert
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Israel Western Negev
Italy Abruzzo National Park
Italy Agri Valley
Italy Albegna river valley
Italy Alburni mountains
Italy Alto Ionio Cosentino
Italy Colfiorito
Italy Crete Senesi
Italy Daunia mountains
Italy Dolomiti di Pietrapertosa
Italy Ernici and Simbruini mountains
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Italy Gran Sasso and Laga mountains
Italy Gravine
Italy Lucretili mountains
Italy Maiella, Pizzi and Frentani mountains
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Matese
Italy Mount Cervati
Italy Mount Cofano, Cape San Vito and Mount Sparagio
Italy Murge
Italy Nebrodi
Italy Sibillini mountains
Italy Sirente, Velino and Duchessa mountains
Jordan Burqu'
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Gradsko-Rosoman-Negotino
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Mariovo
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Osogovo Mountains
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Tikvesh Region
Palestinian Authority Territories Jericho
Palestinian Authority Territories Jerusalem wilderness
Syria Jabal al-Bilas
Syria Tadmur desert and mountains
Turkey Alaçatı
Turkey Bolkar Mountains
Turkey Göksu Valley
Yemen Al-Murah
Yemen High mountains of Ibb
Yemen Jabal Sumarah
Yemen Ma'rib - Naqil Fardah - Baraqish
Yemen Ta'izz wadis

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Desert Hot suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 5000 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Falco biarmicus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2018.