Lanner Falcon Falco biarmicus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 42,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 18,200,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 67000-670000 poor suspected 2009
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5 - - -

Population justification: Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001) place the global population in the band 100,001-1,000,000 individuals, which roughly equates to 67,000-670,000 mature individuals. The European population is estimated at 840-1,700 mature individuals (BirdLife International in prep.). Europe forms a very small proportion of the global range (approximately 1%).

Trend justification: The species is declining in Europe owing to persecution, collecting of eggs and chicks for falconry, collisions with wind turbines, habitat loss, and nest-site competition with Peregrine Falcons (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001; De Rosa 2019; Keller et al. 2020). Particularly notable declines have occurred in former strongholds such as Italy and Turkey, as well as in the West Balkans and Greece (Keller et al. 2020; Di Vittorio et al. 2017). Exploitation for falconry may also be causing declines in breeding populations in Saudi Arabia  (Binothman 2016). Declines of 38% (equivalent to 18.9% over three generations) were recorded outside of protected areas during road surveys in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger in 1969-1973 and 2003-2004, but there was no significant decline within protected areas (Thiollay 2006). There was no significant decline detected during road surveys in Northern Cameroon in 1973 and 2000. There are reports of declines in North Africa (Corso 2018), but a regional Red List assessment carried out in 2020 categorised the species as Least Concern, despite local declines in Libya and Egypt. Localised declines in southern Africa have been linked to poisoning by pesticides (Global Raptor Information Network 2015). 

Despite these local declines, there is no evidence for population decline across the rest of the species's range, therefore the global population is suspected to be declining at a rate of <20% over three generations.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
Congo V Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus V Extant Yes
Czechia V Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
France V Extant Yes
Gabon V Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq V Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Lesotho N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant Yes
Qatar U Extant
Romania V Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes
Slovakia V Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
North Macedonia Demir Kapija Gorge
North Macedonia River Crna gorge
North Macedonia Babuna gorge, Topolka gorge, and Crn Kamen
North Macedonia River Radika catchment
Azerbaijan Mount Kargabazar and Mount Gush-gaya
Portugal South-west coast of Portugal
Turkey Kirmir Valley
Turkey Sarıyar Reservoir
South Africa Zululand
Greece Tymfi (Gkamila) and Smolikas mountains
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Asterousia (Kofinas), Crete
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Echinades, Kalamos and Atokos islands
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Kochylas, Skyros
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Western, eastern and southern Rhodes
Italy Anapo gorges
Italy Rocca Busambra
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Dolomiti di Pietrapertosa
Italy Gravine
Italy Murge
Italy Alburni mountains
Italy River Biferno
Italy Maiella, Pizzi and Frentani mountains
Italy Sirente, Velino and Duchessa mountains
Italy Gran Sasso d'Italia
Italy Tolfa hills
Italy Lucretili mountains
Italy Ernici and Simbruini mountains
Italy Abruzzo National Park
Italy Matese
Italy Mount Cervati
Italy Agri Valley
Italy Mount Cofano, Cape San Vito and Mount Sparagio
Italy Castelluzzo
Italy Sicani mountains
Italy Colfiorito
Italy Crete Senesi
Italy Nebrodi
Italy Sibillini mountains
Italy Gargano promontory
Italy Furlo gorge and Mount Catria
Italy Daunia mountains
Italy Alto Ionio Cosentino
Albania Patoku lagoon
Georgia Iori Region
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Serbia Sara mountain
Serbia Sicevo gorge
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia Kornati National Park and Telascica Nature Park
Croatia Mount Velebit
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Italy Gran Sasso and Laga mountains
Turkey Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands
Turkey Alaçatı
Turkey Bolkar Mountains
Israel Judean desert
Israel Western Negev
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Jordan Hisma Basin - Rum
Jordan Aqaba coast and mountains
Jordan Burqu'
Palestine Jericho
Palestine Jerusalem wilderness
Syria Jabal al-Bilas
Syria Tadmur desert and mountains
Yemen Al-Murah
Yemen Jabal Sumarah
Yemen High mountains of Ibb
Yemen Ta'izz wadis
Yemen Ma'rib - Naqil Fardah - Baraqish
North Macedonia Tikvesh Region
North Macedonia Mariovo
Israel Judean foothills
Saudi Arabia Wadi Turabah and Jabal Ibrahim
Saudi Arabia Qishran Bay
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Syria Wadi al-Qarn - Burqush
United Arab Emirates Digdaga - Hamraniyah
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons
Yemen Jabal al-Nabi Shu'ayb
Yemen Mafraq al-Mukha
Turkey Bolkar mountain
Turkey Göksu Valley
Italy Albegna river valley
Italy Vico lake
Italy Picentini mountains
Italy Calanchi della Basilicata
Italy Peloritani mountains
Italy Madonie
Italy Biviere and Plain of Gela
North Macedonia River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica
North Macedonia Osogovo Mountains
North Macedonia River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka
North Macedonia Lake Mantovo and river Lakavica
North Macedonia Gradsko-Rosoman-Negotino
South Africa KwaZulu-Natal Mistbelt Grasslands
Morocco Tarhazoute
Morocco Plage Blanche - Ras Takoumba
Morocco Lagune de Khnifiss
Greece Samothraki island
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Mount Olympos
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Antichasia mountains and Meteora
Greece Mounts Agia Dynati and Kokkini Rachi, Kefalonia
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Kyllini (Ziria)
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Kythira island
Greece Antikythira island and surrounding islets
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Northern Chios
Greece Mount Dikaios, lake Psalidi and Alyki lagoon, Kos
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Greece Mount Kryoneritis, Crete
Greece Mount Idi, Crete
Greece Mount Dikti, Crete
Italy Sicani mountains, Rocca Busambra and Ficuzza forest

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Desert Hot suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 5000 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Falco peregrinus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Falco biarmicus. Downloaded from on 29/03/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 29/03/2023.