Justification of Red List Category
Trends in this species's population are poorly documented; however, it probably has a moderately small population that is suspected to be undergoing a moderately rapid population reduction, both owing to pesticide use and incidental capture by trappers targeting Saker Falcon Falco cherrug.
In the 1970s the global population was estimated at 10,000-25,000 pairs by Cade (1982). The total population may still number more than 10,000 birds, although there are perhaps not many more), thus it is placed in the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.
A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of habitat degradation, pesticide use and capture.
Falco jugger occurs in the Indian Subcontinent from extreme south-east Iran, south-east Afghanistan, and Pakistan, through India (from the Himalayan foothills south to northern Kerala and northern Tamil Nadu), Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and north-west Myanmar. In Bangladesh, since the 1980s it has been recorded at only three locations in the northeast and northwest (Siddiqui et al. 2008); there are no breeding records, and it may only be a vagrant (P. Thompson in litt. 2016). The species's range has been estimated to cover 4.2 million km2 (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001). In the 1960s the species was the commonest of all [the region's] falcons (Ali and Ripley 1978), but is now declining rapidly (Ali and Ripley 1987). In the 1970s, a total population of 10,000-25,000 pairs was suggested (Cade 1982). Now, the total population may still number more than 10,000 birds, although is perhaps not much more (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001).
It is mostly found from sea-level to 1,000 m in dry open woodland and open country with scattered trees (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001).
Declines have been noted in Pakistan and north-west India, perhaps from spreading cultivation and pesticides, and the species is scarce in Nepal and Bangladesh. In Pakistan at least, the species is threatened by trapping for Saker Falcons Falco cherrug - Laggar Falcons themselves are apparently not prized for falconry (Ali and Ripley 1987). The main threat, given the presumed susceptibility of the species to pesticides, is the intensification of pesticide use in the region, e.g. there was a seven-fold increase in pesticide use in Pakistan between 1981 and 1992 (Movalli 2000).
Conservation Actions Underway
It breeds in Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India.
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Mahood, S., Taylor, J., Westrip, J.
Thompson, P., Sharma, S., Naoroji, R., Harris, C., Susanth, C., Prasad, A.
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Falco jugger. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/01/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/01/2019.