NT
Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Near Threatened A4ace
2016 Near Threatened A4a
2014 Near Threatened A4a
2013 Critically Endangered A4bcde
2012 Critically Endangered A4bcde
2010 Critically Endangered A4b,c,d,e
2009 Critically Endangered A4b,c,d,e
2008 Critically Endangered
2005 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,940,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 6,840,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 32000-55000 medium estimated 2014
Population trend Decreasing good estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 25-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.1 - - -

Population justification: The total population was recently estimated at 30,900-56,800 individuals (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2010), but when factoring in the potential proportion of birds not counted in surveys, the total population may number c.48,000-82,000 individuals (M. Kirchhoff in litt. 2014). This is assumed to equate to c.32,000-55,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Surveys had suggested that the population was undergoing an extremely rapid decline, which was projected to continue (K. Kuletz in litt. 2002; Kuletz et al. 2003; Kissling 2006; Piatt et al. undated). However, more recent surveys and analyses suggest that the population may not be declining at such a steep rate (M. Kissling in litt. 2010; M. Kirchhoff in litt. 2010), with numbers in some areas appearing to be stable (Kirchhoff et al. 2014, M. Kirchhoff in litt. 2014). Following this recent information the population is suspected to be in moderately rapid decline.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Canada N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Russia (Asian) Odyan bay
Russia (Asian) Senyavina Strait
USA Glacier Bay & Icy Strait
USA Glacier Bay Outer Coast Marine
USA Icy Bay
USA Kachemak Bay
USA Kenai Fjords
USA Prince William Sound
USA Uganik Bay & Viekoda Bay
USA Unimak & Akutan Passes
USA Yakutat Bay

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable non-breeding
Rocky areas major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Vulpes vulpes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Brachyramphus brevirostris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/08/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/08/2019.